Question 1: Define the following:
(a) Exocrine gland
Answer: Exocrine Glands: These glands have ducts. They secreted their secretions through ducts.
(b) Endocrine gland
Answer: Endocrine Glands: Endocrine glands do not have ducts. They directly secrete their secretions.
Answer: Hormone: Hormones are non-nutrient chemicals which act as intercellular messengers and are produced in trace amounts.
Question 2: Diagrammatically indicate the location of the various endocrine glands in our body.
Question 3: List the hormones secreted by the following:
(a) Hypothalamus (b) Pituitary (c) Thyroid (d) Parathyroid (e) Adrenal (f) Pancreas (g) Testis (h) Ovary (i) Thymus (j) Atrium (k) Kidney (l) G-I Tract
- Hypothalamus: Releasing Hormone and Inhibiting Hormone
- Pituitary: Growth Hormone, Prolactin, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Melatonin
- Thyroid: Tetraiodothyronine, Triiodothyronine
- Parathyroid: Parathyroid Hormone
- Adrenal: Adrenalin or Epinephrine, Noradrinaline or Norepinephrine, Corticoids
- Pancreas: Glcuagon, Insulin
- Testis: Testosterone
- Ovary: Estrogen, Progesterone
- Thymus: Thymosin
- Atrium: Atrial Natriuretic Factor
- Kideny: Erythropoietin
- G I Tract: gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
Question 4: Fill in the blanks:
|Hypothalamic hormones||Pituitary Gland|
|Thyrotrophin (TSH)||Thyroid Gland|
|Corticotrophin (ACTH)||Adrenal Cortex|
|Gonadotrophins (LH, FSH)||Testis and Ovaries|
|Melanotrophin (MSH)||Pineal Gland|
Question 5: Write short notes on the functions of the following hormones:
(a) Parathyroid hormone (PTH) (b) Thyroid hormones (c) Thymosins (d) Androgens (e) Estrogens (f) Insulin and Glucagon
- Answer: Function of Parathyroid Hormone: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases the Ca2+ levels in the blood. PTH acts on bones and stimulates the process of bone resorption (dissolution/ demineralisation). PTH also stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+ by the renal tubules and increases Ca2+ absorption from the digested food. It is, thus, clear that PTH is a hypercalcemic hormone, i.e., it increases the blood Ca2+ levels. Along with TCT, it plays a significant role in calcium balance in the body.
- Answer: Functions of Thyroid Hormones: Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of the basal metabolic rate. These hormones also support the process of red blood cell formation. Thyroid hormones control the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Maintenance of water and electrolyte balance is also influenced by thyroid hormones. Thyroid gland also secretes a protein hormone called thyrocalcitonin (TCT) which regulates the blood calcium levels.
- Answer: Functions of Thymosins: Thymosins play a major role in the differentiation of T-lymphocytes, which provide cell-mediated immunity. In addition, thymosins also promote production of antibodies to provide humoral immunity.
- Answer: Functions of Androgen: Androgens regulate the development, maturation and functions of the male accessory sex organs like epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra etc. These hormones stimulate muscular growth, growth of facial and axillary hair, aggressiveness, low pitch of voice etc. Androgens play a major stimulatory role in the process of spermatogenesis (formation of spermatozoa). Androgens act on the central neural system and influence the male sexual behaviour (libido). These hormones produce anabolic (synthetic) effects on protein and carbohydrate metabolism.
- Answer: Functions of Estrogen: Estrogens produce wide ranging actions such as stimulation of growth and activities of female secondary sex organs, development of growing ovarian follicles, appearance of female secondary sex characters (e.g., high pitch of voice, etc.), mammary gland development. Estrogens also regulate female sexual behaviour.
- Answer: Functions of Insulin and Glucagon: Glucagon is a peptide hormone, and plays an important role in maintaining the normal blood glucose levels. Glucagon acts mainly on the liver cells (hepatocytes) and stimulates glycogenolysis resulting in an increased blood sugar (hyperglycemia). In addition, this hormone stimulates the process of gluconeogenesis which also contributes to hyperglycemia. Glucagon reduces the cellular glucose uptake and utilisation. Thus, glucagon is a hyperglycemic hormone. Insulin is a peptide hormone, which plays a major role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Insulin acts mainly on hepatocytes and adipocytes (cells of adipose tissue), and enhances cellular glucose uptake and utilisation. As a result, there is a rapid movement of glucose from blood to hepatocytes and adipocytes resulting in decreased blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). Insulin also stimulates conversion of glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis) in the target cells. The glucose homeostasis in blood is thus maintained jointly by the two – insulin and glucagons.