Class 10 Subjects

# Mathematics

## Social Science History

Hindi version notes of Social Science are also available. Many students find it difficult to understand social science in English version. These notes are to help such students.

## English Footprints Without Feet

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### Last Minute Preparation

Last minute revision of very short notes can be very useful for examination. This can give you the proverbial edge over your competitors. These are collection of key points from each chapter. Go through these notes just before leaving for school. You can view them while in the bus or car. You can also view them while you are riding on the pillion of your dad's bike. These notes are for those student who do not want to leave anything to chanceClick Here

## Syllabus for Mathematics

REAL NUMBERS: Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic - statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of irrationality of √2, √3, √5 Decimal representation of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals.

POLYNOMIALS: Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.

PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES: Pair of linear equations in two variables and graphical method of their solution, consistency/inconsistency. Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically - by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication method. Simple situational problems. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS: Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a ≠ 0). Solutions of quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization, by completing the square and by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day to day activities to be incorporated.

ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS: Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems.

LINES (In two-dimensions): Review: Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula. Section formula (internal division). Area of a triangle.

TRIANGLES: Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.

CIRCLES: Tangent to a circle at, point of contact

CONSTRUCTIONS: Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally). Tangents to a circle from a point outside it. Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.

INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY: Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios whichever are defined at 0o and 90o. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30o, 45o and 60o. Relationships between the ratios.

TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES: Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.

HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES: Angle of elevation, Angle of Depression. (8) Periods Simple problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30o, 45o, 60o.

AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES: Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60°, 90° and 120° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken.)

SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES: Surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone. Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken).

STATISTICS: Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph.

PROBABILITY: Classical definition of probability. Simple problems on single events (not using set notation).

## Syllabus for Science

Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implication of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions : Combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.

Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.

Metals and non-metals: Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.

Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compunds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.

Periodic Classification of elements: Need for classification, Early attempts at classification of elements (Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.

Life processes: ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.

Control and coordination in plants and animals: Topic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones; Control and co-ordination in animals; Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action; Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.

Reproduction: Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV / AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.

Heredity and evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution - Laws for inheritance of traits : Sex determination : brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.

Light: Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification. Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens.

Human eye: Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses. Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.

Electric current: potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, resistivity, Factors on which the resistane of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.

Magnetic effects of electric current: Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Electric Generator, Direct Current. Alternating current: frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.

Sources of energy: Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy : Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; Nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources of Energy.

Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.

Management of natural resources: Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of natural resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.

## Syllabus for History

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s, The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc., General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China: Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China, French colonialism in Indo-China, Phases of struggle against the French, The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh, The Second World War and the liberation struggle, America and the Vietnam war.

Nationalism in India: Impact of First World War, Khilafat, Non- Cooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement, Salt Satyagraha, Movements of peasants, workers, tribals, Limits of Civil Disobedience, The Sense of Collective Belonging.

The making of a Global World: The Pre-modern world, The Nineteenth Century global economy, colonialism), The Inter war Economy (Great Depression), Rebuilding the World Economy

The Age of Industrialization: Proto-industrialization and pace of industrial change, Life of workers, Industrialization in the colonies, Early Entrepreneurs & workers, The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth, Market for Goods

Work, Life & Leisure: Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay, Housing and Land Reclamation, Social Changes in the cities. Cities and the challenge of the Environment

Print Culture and the Modern World: The history of print in Europe, The growth of press in nineteenth century India, Relationship between print culture, public debate and politics.

Novels, Society and History: Emergence of the novel as a genre in the west, The relationship between the novel and changes in modern society, Early novels in nineteenth century India, A study of two or three major writers.

## Syllabus for Geography

Resources and Development: Types - natural and human; Need for resource planning, natural resources, land as a resource, soil types and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures.

Water Resources: Sources, distribution, utilisation, multi-purpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting. (One case study to be introduced)

Agriculture: Types of farming, major crops, cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms; their impact; contribution of Agriculture to national economy-employment and output.

Mineral and energy resources: Types of minerals, distribution use and economic importance of minerals, conservation, types of power resources: conventional and nonconventional, distribution and utilization, and conservation.

Manufacturing industries: Types, spatial distribution, contribution of industries to the national economy, industrial pollution and degradation of environment, measures to control degradation.

Lifelines of economy: Importance of means of Communication and transportation, Trade & Tourism

## Syllabus for Political Science

Power Sharing and Federalism: Why and how is power shared in democracies? How has federal division of power in India helped national unity? To what extent has decentralisation achieved this objective? How does democracy accommodate different social groups?

Democracy and Diversity, and Gender, Religion and Caste: Are divisions inherent to the working of democracy? What has been the effect of caste on politics and of politics on caste? How has the gender division shaped politics? How do communal divisions affect democracy?

Popular Struggles and Movements: This chapter is to be done as project work only and will not be evaluated in theory.

Political Parties: What role do political parties play in competition and contestation? Which are the major national and regional parties in India?

Outcomes of Democracy: Can or should democracy be judged by its outcomes? What outcomes can one reasonably expect of democracies? Does democracy in India meet these expectations? Has democracy led to development, security and dignity for the people? What sustains democracy in India?

Challenges to Democracy: Is the idea of democracy shrinking? What are the major challenges to democracy in India? How can democracy be reformed and deepened? What role can an ordinary citizen play in deepening democracy?

## Syllabus for economics

Development: The traditional notion of development; National Income and Percapita Income. Growth of National Income - critical appraisal of existing development indicators (PCI, IMR, SR and other income and health indicators) The need for health and educational development; Human Development Indicators (in simple and brief as a holistic measure of development.

Sectors of Indian economy: Sectors of Economic Activities; Historical change in sectors; Rising importance of tertiary sector; Employment Generation; Division of Sectors- Organised and Unorganised; Protective measures for unorganized sector workers.

Money and Credit: Role of money in an economy: Formal and Informal financial institutions for Savings and Credit – General Introduction; Select one formal institution such as a nationalized commercial bank and a few informal institutions; Local money lenders, landlords, chit funds and private finance companies.

Globalisation and the Indian Economy: Production across countries, Foreign trade and Interaction of Markets, what is Globalization? Factors, WTO, Impact, Fair Globalization

Consumer Rights: How consumer is exploited (one or two simple case studies) factors causing exploitation of consumers; Rise of consumer awareness; how a consumer should be in a market; role of government in consumer protection.