Science Class Ten Science Class ten Hindi Version Class 10 Subject List





Acid Base And Salt

Acid

Acids:- The word ‘Acid’ came from Latin word ‘Acidus or Acere’ which means sour.

Sour taste is the most common characteristic of acid. Acid turns blue litmus paper red. There are many substances which contain acid and hence taste sour, such as curd, tamarind, lemon, etc.

Types of Acids:- Acids are divided into two types on the basis of their occurrence – Natural acids and Mineral acids.

Natural Acid:- Acids which are obtained from natural sources are called natural acid or organic acid.

Some common organic acid their and natural source
Name of Acid Source
Acetic acid Vinegar
Ascorbic acid Amla
Guava
Citric acid Lemon
Orange
Other citrus food
Lactic acid Sour milk
  Curd
Methanoic acid Ant sting
Nettle sting
Oxalic acid Tomato
Tartaric acid Tamarind

Mineral Acids:- Acids that prepare from mineral are known as mineral acids, inorganic acids, man-made acids or synthetic acid, such as hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, etc.

Chemical Properties of Acid

Reaction of acids with metal:

Acids give hydrogen gas along with respective salt when they react with a metal.

reaction of metal with acid

Example:-

Hydrogen gas and zinc chloride are formed when hydrochloric acid reacts with zinc metal.

reaction of hydrochloric acid with zinc

Hydrogen gas and sodium chloride are formed when hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium metal.

reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium

Hydrogen gas and iron chloride are formed when hydrochloric acid reacts with iron.

reaction of hydrochloric acid with iron

Hydrogen gas and zinc sulphate are formed when zinc metal reacts with sulphuric acid

reaction of sulphuric acid with zinc
Test for hydrogen gas:

The gas evolved after reaction of acid with metal can be tested by bringing a lighted candle near it. If the gas burns with pop sound, then it confirms the evolution of hydrogen gas. Burning with pop sound is the characteristic test for hydrogen gas.

Reaction of acids with metal carbonate:

Acids give carbon dioxide gas and respective salts along with water when they react with metal carbonates.

reaction of acid with carbonate

Examples:

Hydrochloric acid gives carbon dioxide gas, sodium chloride along with water when reacts with sodium carbonate.

reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium carbonate

Hydrochloric acid gives carbon dioxide, magnesium chloride and water when it reacts with magnesium carbonate.

reaction of hydrochloric acid with magnesium carbonate

Hydrochloric acid gives carbon dioxide gas, calcium chloride and water when it reacts with calcium carbonate.

reaction of hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate

Sulphuric acid gives calcium sulphate, carbon dioxide gas, calcium sulphate and water when it reacts with calcium carbonate.

reaction of sulphuric acid with calcium carbonate

Sulphuric acid gives sodium sulphate, carbon dioxide gas and water when it reacts with sodium carbonate.

reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium carbonate

Nitric acid gives sodium nitrate, water and carbon dioxide gas when it reacts with sodium carbonate.

reaction of nitric acid with sodium carbonate

Reaction of acid with hydrogen carbonates (bicarbonates):

Acids give carbon dioxide gas, respective salt and water when they react with metal hydrogen carbonate.

reaction of acid with metal hydrogen carbonate

Examples:

Hydrochloric acid gives carbon dioxide, sodium chloride and water when it reacts with sodium bicarbonate.

reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydrogen carbonate

Sulphuric acid gives sodium sulphate, carbon dioxide gas and water when it reacts with sodium bicarbonate.

reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium hydrogen carbonate

Sodium bicarbonate is also known as sodium hydrogen carbonate, baking soda, baking powder, bread soda and bicarbonate of soda.

Test for evolution of carbon dioxide gas:

Carbon dioxide turns lime water milky when passed through it. This is the characteristic test for carbon dioxide gas.

The gas evolved because of reaction of acid with metal carbonate or metal hydrogen carbonate turns lime water milky. This shows that the gas is carbon dioxide gas. This happens because of formation of white precipitate of calcium carbonate.

reaction of carbon dioxide with lime water

But when excess of carbon dioxide is passed through lime water, it makes milky colour of lime water disappear. This happens because of formation of calcium hydrogen carbonate. As calcium hydrogen carbonate is soluble in water, thus the milky colour of solution mixture disappears.

Reaction of acid with marble and egg shell:

Since, marble and egg shell are made of calcium carbonate, hence when acid is poured over marble or egg shell, bubbles of carbon dioxide are formed.

Historical Monuments and Acid Rain:

Burning of fossil fuels releases oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. Nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide form nitric acid and sulphuric acid on reaction with water. When rain droplets mix with these gases; present in atmosphere because of pollution; they form acid rain.

Acid rain causes damage to the historical monuments and other buildings. For example Taj Mahal, which is made of marble, is getting damaged because of reaction with acid rain. Marble is calcium carbonate which reacts with the acid and thus gets corroded.

Use of Reaction between Acid and Metal Carbonate or Metal Bicarbonate in Fire Extinguisher:

Metal carbonate or metal hydrogen carbonate and acid are used in fire extinguisher to produce carbon dioxide gas. Acid and metal carbonate or bicarbonate are kept in separate chambers in a fire extinguisher. On emergency they are allowed to react with one another. The carbon dioxide gas so produce is poured over fire. As carbon dioxide does not support burning, it puts off the fire.


Next

Acid Base and Salt: Base
Acid Base and Salt: Common in All Acid and Base
Acid Base and Salt: Strenght of Acid and Base
Acid Base and Salt: Salt
Acid Base and Salt: Common Salt - Sodium chloride
Acid Base and Salt: Exemplar Problem and Solution - MCQ1
Acid Base and Salt: Exemplar Problem and Solution - MCQ2
Acid Base and Salt: Exemplar Problem and Solution - MCQ3
Acid Base and Salt: Exemplar Problem and Solution - Short Answer Type - 1
Acid Base and Salt: Exemplar Problem and Solution - Short Answer Type - 2
Acid Base and Salt: Exemplar Problem and Solution - Long Answer Type - 1
Acid Base and Salt: Exemplar Problem and Solution - Long Answer Type - 2
Acid Base and Salt: NCERT Question and Answer: Intext part - I
Acid Base and Salt: NCERT Question and Answer: Intext part - II
Acid Base and Salt: NCERT Question and Answer: Exercise part - I
Acid Base and Salt: NCERT Question and Answer: Exercise part - II
Acid Base and Salt: Class Test 1
Acid Base and Salt: Quiz

 




   
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