Question 1: Talk to two workers (For example: construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.
Answer: The construction worker is getting Rs. 400 per day which is much lower than the minimum wage of Rs. 565 for semi-skilled workers. The worker at the provisional store is getting Rs. 5000 per month which is way below the minimum wages of Rs. 14,698 per month for non-matriculate worker.
Question 2: What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Answer: A company has to pay much higher salary and other facilities to its workers in the USA. But it can hire a worker at less than half that cost in India. Thus, a foreign company can save lot of money on wages if it sets up production base in India.
Question 3: Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
Answer: The victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got some monetary compensation. But money cannot substitute for a near and dear one who may have lost his life in the tragedy. Many people who were maimed for life have no use for the compensation money. Hence, it can be said that the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice.
Question 4: What do we mean when we speak about law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement?
Answer: Implementation of a law is called law enforcement. There are numerous laws in our country but very few of them are properly enforced. Law enforcement is the duty of the government.
Question 5: How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Answer: Social justice involves end of exploitation of any person at the hand of another person. There are three important functionaries in a market, i.e. producer, consumer and worker. In a fair market none of the producer or consumer or worker should exploit the other. Let us take an example of a producer who may be promising high quality in its brand of chocolate. Let us assume that an independent agency tests the chocolate and finds some carcinogenic substance in the chocolate. This is a clear case of exploitation of consumer by the producer. As per the law of the land, the producer is liable for strict punishment for this offence.
Question 6: Imagine yourself to be a worker in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 kms away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read out your responses in the classroom.
Answer: This is sad news for me. The factory where I am working shall be shifted 100 km away from here. I will be jobless because other factories shall also be shifted from this town. I am worried about my future. How will I manage the expenses of my family? How will I pay from my children’s school fees? I may end up working as daily wage earner in some petty job.
Question 7: Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
Answer: The government plays following roles on this issue:
Question 8: What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air, (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Answer: I am living near an industrial area. There are numerous factories. Chimneys of these factories spew out black smoke which ends up polluting the air. Due to this, visibility is very poor throughout the day. Even breathing becomes difficult sometimes. Groundwater also appears to be polluted which is evident from the hard water which we get in our taps. Most of the empty land in this area is barren and unfit for farming. This speaks about the level of soil pollution this area.
Question 9: How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
Answer: Earlier, environment was treated as something taken for granted. People had scant regard for the environment. But things have changed now. Most of the people are now aware about the consequences of environmental pollution. Government has also formulated many laws to ensure safety of environment. For example; new vehicles need to meet the strict environmental norms.
Question 10: What do you think the famous cartoonist R. K. Laxman is trying to convey in this cartoon? How does it relate to the 2006 law that you read about on page 123?
Answer: In this cartoon, some children are waiting for their school bus. They are accompanied by their mothers. A child is seen carrying a heavy schoolbag on his back. One of the ladies says that she has hired that child to carry her son’s schoolbag. This cartoon is trying to convey two important issues. One of the issues is the heavy load of schoolbags on today’s children. Another message is about the problem of child labour. Thus, this cartoon relates to the Child Labour Prevention Act, 2006.
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