Class 8 Geography

# Human Resources

## NCERT Solution

Question 1: Why are people considered a resource?

Answer: No resource can be utilised without the intervention of people. It is the people who add value to a resource. Hence, people are considered as a resource.

Question 2: What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?

Answer: Following are the main causes of uneven distribution of population in the world:

• Geographical causes: Topography, climate, soil, water and mineral
• Social, cultural and economic causes

Question 3: The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?

Answer: With advancements in science and technology, food production has increased. Development in healthcare facilities has helped in reducing death rate. Due to this, the world population has grown very rapidly.

Question 4: Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.

Answer: When the death rate is more than the birth rate, it will lead to de-growth in population. When the birth rate is equal to death rate, there will be no growth in population. When the birth rate is higher than death rate, it will lead to growth in population. The difference between birth rate and death rate is called natural growth rate of population.

Question 5: What is meant by population composition?

Answer: The population composition of a country tells about age profile, sex, literacy level, health condition, occupation and income level. Thus, the structure of the population is called population composition.

Question 6: What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?

Answer: A population pyramid is a graphical representation of population composition. In a population pyramid, the total population is divided into various age groups, e.g. 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, etc. For each age group, the percentage of the total population is subdivided into males and females.

The relative number of children (below 15 years) and that of the elderly (above 65 years) shows the relative number of dependents in the population. The relative number of people in the working age (between 15 and 65 years) shows the relative number of productive people.

### Tick the correct answer:

Question 1: Which does the term population distribution refer to?

1. How population in a specified area changes over time.
2. The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.
3. The way in which people are spread across a given area.

Answer: (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.

Question 2: Which are three main factors that cause population change?

1. Births, deaths and marriage
2. Births, deaths and migration
3. Births, deaths and life expectancy

Answer: (b) Births, deaths and migration

Question 3: In 1999, the world population reached

1. 1 billion
2. 3 billion
3. 6 billion

Answer: (c) 6 billion

Question 4: What is a population pyramid?

1. A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
2. When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.
3. Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.

Answer: (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population

Complete the sentences below using some of the following words:

sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely

1. When people are attracted to an area it becomes ....................... populated

Answer: densely
2. Factors that influence this include ....................... climate; good supplies of ....................... resources and ....................... land.

Answer: favourable, natural, fertile