Class 8 History

India After Independence

NCERT Solution

Question 1: Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced.

Answer: The three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced are as follows:

  • Rehabilitation of a large number of refugees.
  • Assimilation of princely states.
  • Ensuring the unity of a country which is full of diversity.

Question 2: What was the role of the Planning Commission?

Answer: The Planning Commission was to formulate policies which would guide the economic development. Productivity and employment opportunities were to be increased through proper implementation of those policies.

Question 3: Fill in the blanks:

  1. Subjects that were placed on the Union List were _________, _________ and _________.

    Answer: taxes, defence and foreign affairs
  2. Subjects on the Concurrent List were _________ and _________.

    Answer: forests and agriculture
  3. Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a role in development was called a _________ _________ model.

    Answer: Mixed economy
  4. The death of _________ sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give in to the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.

    Answer: Potti Sriramulu

Question 4: State whether true or false:

  1. At independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages.
  2. The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress party.
  3. In the first national election, only men were allowed to vote.
  4. The Second Five Year Plan focused on the development of heavy industry.

Answer: (a) True, (b) False, (c) False, (d) True

Question 5: What did Dr Ambedkar mean when he said that “In politics we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality”?

Answer: By political equality, Dr. Ambedkar meant the universal adult franchise which gave equal rights to all citizens. By socioeconomic inequality, he meant the income disparities among people.

Question 6: After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?

Answer: The partition of the country along communal lines changed the mindset of the nationalist leaders. They wanted to prevent further divisions in the country on sectarian lines.

Question 7: Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence.

Answer: Some leaders believed that English should be done away with and Hindi should be promoted as the national language. But this idea was opposed by the leaders from non-Hindi areas. They did not want an imposition on Hindi on the people of those areas. Finally, it was decided that while Hindi would be the ‘official language’; English would be used for communication among various states.

Question 8: How was the economic development of India visualised in the early decades after Independence?

Answer: Removing poverty and building a modern technical and industrial base were important objectives for the new nation. The Planning Commission was set up in 1950 to plan and execute policies for economic development.

Question 9: Who was Mira Ben? Write about her life and values.

Answer: Mira Ben lived with Mahatma Gandhi in his ashram. She was born in 1892 in Britain and her original name was Madeleine Slade. He father worked as an officer in the Royal Navy. She was so influenced by the ideals of Gandhi that she came to India to live in his ashram. She was a true Gandhian and was at the forefront of the freedom movement of India. She continued to live in India for many years even after the independence. Later on, she went to live in Austria where she breathed her last in 1982. She was conferred the Padma Vibhushan for her contribution to the nation.

How When and Where

Ascension of a ruler to the throne, important battles fought by him and succession of power are some of the events which can be expressed with reference to time. Dates are important for correlating such events.

From Trade to Territory

East India Company started as trader in India. In due course of time, the Company changed from trader to ruler of the country.

Ruling the Countryside

The East India Company was made the Diwan of Bengal on 12 August 1765; by then Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. Thus, the Company became of the chief financial administrator of the territory of Bengal.

Tribals, Dikus and Golden Age

The tribal chiefs lost much of their administrative power. They were forced to follow the laws made by the British. They had to pay tribute to the British.

The 1857 Revolt

The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 holds important place in the history of freedom movement in India. This was the first struggle against the British rule to have support of a large section of public and was spread over a large area of the country.

Colonialism and City

In the late eighteenth century Calcutta, Bombay and Madras rose in importance as they became the Presidency cities. These three cities became the centres of British power in different regions of India.

Weavers and Iron Smelters

The tanti of Bengal, the julahas and momins of north India, and the sale, kaikollar and devangs of south India are examples of some weaving communities.

Reforms in Education

The education system which is prevalent in India is also known as the Macaulay System. This name has stuck because this system was based on recommendations by a British named Thomas Babington Macaulay.

Women Castes and Reforms

The practice of child marriage was rampant. Both Hindu and Muslim men could marry more than one wife. Burning of a widow on her husband's pyre was a gory practice in many parts of India.

Changing Visual Arts

Picturesque landscape painting was one of the popular traditions of the European painters. In those paintings, India was depicted as a quaint land.

National Movement in Making

You will learn about some early political associations in India, with special reference to Indian National Congress. Then you will learn about the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi and how he changed the course of nationalist movement in India.

India After Independence

After partition, 8 million refugees had come from Pakistan. Rehabilitation of these refugees was a big challenge. There were about 500 hundred princely states, which needed to be assimilated into the country.