Class 8 Civics

Criminal Justice System

NCERT Solution

Question 1: In a town called Peace Land, the supporters of the Fiesta football team learn that the supporters of the Jubilee football team in the nearby city about 40 km away have damaged the ground on which the Final between both teams is to be played the following day. A crowd of Fiesta fans armed with deadly weapons attack the homes of the supporters of the Jubilee football team in the town. In the attack, 10 men are killed, 5 women are gravely hurt, many homes are destroyed and over 50 people injured.

Imagine that you and your classmates are now part of the criminal justice system. First divide the class into the following four groups of persons: Police, Public Prosecutor, Defence Lawyer, Judge

The column on the right provides a list of functions. Match these with the roles that are listed on the left. Have each group pick the functions that it needs to perform to bring justice to those who were affected by the violence of the Fiesta fans. In what order, will these functions be performed?

PoliceHear the witnesses
Public ProsecutorRecord the statements of witnesses
Defence LawyerCross examine the witnesses
JudgeTake photographs of burnt homes
Record the evidence
Arrest the Fiesta fans
Write the judgment
Argue the case for the victims
Decide for how many years the accused will be put in jail
Examine the witnesses in court
Pass the judgment
Get the assaulted women medically examined
Conduct a fair trial
Meet the accused persons


PoliceRecord the statements of witnesses, Take photographs of burnt homes, Record the evidence, Get the assaulted women medically examined, Meet the accused persons, Arrest the Fiesta fans
Public ProsecutorCross examine the witnesses, Argue the case for the victims, Examine the witnesses in court
Defence LawyerCross examine the witnesses, Examine the witnesses in court
JudgeWrite the judgment, Decide for how many years the accused will be put in jail, Pass the judgment, Conduct a fair trial

Question a: Now take the same situation but ask one student who is a supporter of the Fiesta Club to perform all the functions listed above. Do you think the victims would get justice if only one person performed all of the functions of the criminal justice system? Why not?

Answer: If only one person performed all of the functions of the criminal justice system then nobody will get justice. A single individual can have a bias towards only one party. This can cloud his sense of judgment. A fair trial cannot be conducted in this situation.

Question b: State two reasons why you believe that different persons need to play different roles as part of the criminal justice system?

Answer: Different parts of the criminal justice system have different roles to play. A particular task needs a particular set of skills and expertise. For example; the job of a police is entirely different from the job of a lawyer. On the other hand, a judge needs to be neutral and has to hear the case without prejudice. So there is a need of different persons for different roles in the criminal justice system.

Indian Constitution

The key features of Indian constituion are: federalims, democratic government, separation of powers and fundamental rights.


The first principle of secularism says that people of different faiths and sections of the society are equal before the law, the Constitution and government policy.


Parliament enables citizens of India to participate in decision making and control the government, thus making it the most important symbol of Indian democracy and a key feature of the Constitution.


As an organ of the State, the judiciary plays a crucial role in the functioning of India’s democracy. It can play this role only because it is independent.

Understanding Law

The laws of our country are equal for all. This means that the law of land does not discriminate on the basis of religion, caste, gender or socio-economic status.

Criminal Justice System

Police, judge and public prosecutor are integral parts of the criminal justice system.

Understanding Marginalisation

To be marginalised is to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the centre of things.

Confronting Marginalisation

As part of their effort to implement the Constitution, both state and central governments create specific schemes for implementation in tribal areas or in areas that have a high Dalit population.

Publc Facilities

There are many facilities which need to be provided to everyone. These are known as public facilities.

Law and Social Justice

Markets everywhere tend to be exploitative of people – whether as workers, consumers or producers. To protect people from such exploitation, the government makes certain laws.