Chapters 1 to 6
Chapters 7 to 12
Transport in Plant
Chapters 13 to 17
Chapters 18 to 22
11 Bio Chapter Summary
There are four major types of animal tissues, viz. epithelial, connective, muscular and neural tissues.
Tissues which provide covering to the inner and outer linings of various organs are called epithelial tissue.
The epithelial tissues are further divided into two main types, viz. simple epithelium and compound epithelium.
The simple epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells. It is present in the lining of body cavities, ducts and tubes.
The compound epithelium is composed of more than one layer of cells. The compound epithelium serves the protective function.
There are three types of connective tissues, viz. loose connective, dense connective and specialized connective tissues.
The matrix of cartilage is solid and pliable and resists compression. The cells of cartilage are called chondrocytes.
The matrix of bones is hard and non-pliable. The bone cells are called osteocytes.
Blood is a fluid connective tissue. It contains plasma, blood cells and platelets.
A muscle is made of many long, cylindrical fibres which are arranged in parallel rays. The muscle fibres are composed of very fine fibrils; called myofibril.
The skeletal muscle is closely attached to skeletal bones. The voluntary movements are facilitated by skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscles quickly get tired.
The smooth muscle fibres are spindle-shaped. Smooth muscles are present in those organs which are not under our conscious control.
The muscles in the heart are called cardiac muscles. Cardiac muscles are multinucleated and have striations.
Neural tissue is made of neurons. Neurons are excitable cells.
When a neuron is stimulated, an electrical disturbance is generated. The electrical disturbance travels along its plasma membrane.
Earthworm is a reddish brown terrestrial invertebrate. It lives in the upper layer of moist soil. Pheretima and Lumbricus are the common Indian earthworms.
is the common species of cockroach. An adult cockroach is about 34 – 53 mm long. Wings extend beyond the tip of the abdomen in males. The body is segmented into three distinct regions, viz. head, thorax and abdomen.
In India, the most common species of frog is
. The frogs are cold-blooded or poikilotherms. The body of a frog is divisible into head and trunk.
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