Health and Disease
Question 1. What are the various public health measures, which you would suggest as safeguard against infectious diseases?
Answer: Following public health measures can provide safeguard against infectious diseases:
- Proper disposal of waste and excreta
- Regular cleaning of water reservoirs, pools, cesspools, tanks, etc.
- Checking the proliferation of mosquitoes
- Mass immunization programs
Question 2. In which way has the study of biology helped us to control infectious diseases?
Answer: Study of biology has helped us in controlling infectious diseases in following ways:
- Developing understanding of means of pathogen attack and proliferation
- Understanding of how to control the damage caused by pathogens
- Understanding of our immune system
- Understanding of vectors which carry pathogens of certain diseases
- Use of biotechnology to make new medicines
Question 3. How does the transmission of each of the following diseases take place?
Answer: Through contaminated food and water
Answer: Through bite of female Anopheles mosquito
Answer: Through contaminated vegetables and fruits
Answer: Through droplets in air
Question 4. What measure would you take to prevent water-borne diseases?
Answer: Water borne diseases can be prevented by taking following steps:
- Regular cleaning of reservoir of drinking water.
- Using water filter at home.
- Avoiding food from roadside vendors.
- Use of chlorine tablets to kill germs in water.
Question 5. Discuss with your teacher what does ‘a suitable gene’ means, in the context of DNA vaccines.
Answer: DNA vaccine involves injecting genetically engineered DNA of the causative pathogen. This helps the body in directly producing antibodies against the pathogen.
Question 6. Name the primary and secondary lymphoid organs.
Answer: Primary Lymphoid Organs: Bone marrow and thymus
Secondary Lymphoid Organs: spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer’s patches of small intestine and appendix
Question 7. The following are some well-known abbreviations, which have been used in this chapter. Expand each one to its full form:
Answer: Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue
Answer: Cell Mediated Immunity
Answer: Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
Answer: National Aids Control Organisation
Answer: Human Immuno Deficiency Virus
Question 8. Differentiate the following and give examples of each:
(a) Innate and acquired immunity
Answer: Innate immunity is present at the time of birth, but acquired immunity develops during one’s lifetime. Innate immunity is non-specific in nature, while active immunity is specific to a particular pathogen.
(b) Active and passive immunity
Answer: When the host cell produces antibodies in response to an antigen, it is called active immunity, When readymade antibodies are injected into the body, it gives passive immunity.
Question 9. Draw a well-labelled diagram of an antibody molecule.
Question 10. What are the various routes by which transmission of human imunodeficiency virus takes place?
Answer: Following are the routes for transmission of HIV:
- Through unprotected sex
- Through infected syringes and needles
- Through blood transfusion
- From an infected mother to unborn child through placenta
Question 11. What is the mechanism by which the AIDS virus causes deficiency of immune system of the infected person?
Answer: HIV enters into helper T-lymphocytes (TH), replicates and produce progeny viruses. The progeny viruses are released in the blood and begin to attack other helper T-lymphocytes. This is repeated leading to a progressive decrease in the number of helper T-lymphocytes in the body. This weakens the immune system of the patient.
Question 12. How is a cancerous cell different from a normal cell?
Answer: Normal cells stop dividing after certain rounds of cell division. But cancer cells continue to divide endlessly.
Question 13. Explain what is meant by metastasis.
Answer: Cancer cells from a tumor reach other parts of the body through blood. These cells begin to form tumors in other parts of the body. This phenomenon is called metastasis.
Question 14. List the harmful effects caused by alcohol/drug abuse.
Answer: Following are the harms of alcohol/drug abuse:
- Loss of productivity in terms of academic performance and economic output
- The person becomes isolated from the family and society
- The person may resort to crime in order to get money to buy drug/alcohol
- The person becomes a liability for the family and society
- Extreme cases can also prove fatal
Question 15. Do you think that friends can influence one to take alcohol/drugs? If yes, how may one protect himself/herself from such an influence?
Answer: Peer pressure can have a profound effect on a person. Sometimes, friends may influence a person to take alcohol/drugs; in order to show conformity with group behavior. One needs to be alert to such signals. In case of even a minor signal, one needs to cut off from such a group. A person also needs to confide such instances with his/her parents because parents are probably the best guides to help in rescue.
Question 16. Why is that once a person starts taking alcohol or drugs, it is difficult to get rid of this habit? Discuss it with your teacher.
Answer: Drugs are frequently used because of their perceived benefits. The inherent addictive nature of these substances results in addiction and dependence. Addiction is a psychological attachment to various effects of a substance. So, a person continues to take addictive substance even when he does not need it in the real sense. Tolerance level of the receptors ion our body increases with repeated use of addictive substances. This results in body craving for higher doses. Thus, it becomes difficult to get rid of the habit.
Question 17. In your view what motivates youngsters to take to alcohol or drugs and how can this be avoided?
Answer: Conformity to group behavior, need for experimentation and excitement, curiosity, etc. can motivate a person to take to alcohol or drugs. This can be avoided by following various steps. One should make friends with his/her parents. One should develop a disciplined lifestyle; in terms of daily routine. One should inculcate some artistic hobbies; like painting, music, photography, etc.