Class 9 Civics

Right Against Exploitation

This right mainly focuses on three issues which are as follows:

Traffic in human beings

This means the human beings cannot be traded to be used as slaves or to be used for immoral purposes. This law has been especially made to protect human trafficking for sex trade.

Bonded Labour

The constitution has banned the forced labour or begar. If a person is forced to work without pay or at nominal pay, this is termed as begar. If the begar continues for a long period then it is known as bonded labour.

Child Labour

Child labour has been banned in the country. A child below 14 years of age cannot be employed in hazardous works; like factories, railway stations, highway eateries, etc. Due to constant efforts by the government, there are now very few instances of children working in hazardous occupations, like beedi making, firecracker factory, bangle factory, etc.

Right to Freedom of Religion

The constitution gives the right to freedom of religion. As per this right, a person is free to follow a religion of his or her choice. The government does not interfere in the religious matter of its citizens. Every person has the right to profess, practice and propagate his religion. Every religious group or sect is free to manage its religious affairs. But a person cannot compel another person to agree to a particular religion by any means. However, a person is free to convert to any religion of his choice. Freedom of religion does not mean doing anything in the name of religion. For example, nobody can force a widow to tonsure her head in the name of religion. Nobody can perform animal sacrifice in the name of religion. The government owned educational institutions do not promote any religion, but it cannot prevent a private institution from doing so.

Cultural and Educational Rights

Every minority group has the right to protect its unique culture and to propagate its unique culture. The meaning of minority is not referring to religion only rather it is also about the linguistic and cultural groups. For example, Telugu speaking people are in majority in Andhra Pradesh while they are in minority in Karnataka. Followers of Sikhism are in majority in Punjab but they are in minority in Delhi and Haryana. If a minority group wants to impart education in its own language, it is free to do so in order to preserve the uniqueness of that language and the related culture. The government run institutions cannot deny admission to anybody on the grounds of religion or language.

Right to Constitutional Remedies

When any of the fundamental rights is violated, the affected person has the right to seek constitutional remedies. The person can go to the court where his grievances could be addressed. No government organ (like the executive, legislature or any government functionary) can violate the fundamental rights of the citizens. In case of any violation of the fundamental rights, a person can file Public Interest Litigation (PIL). PIL is an instrument which allows anybody to knock at the doors of the judiciary.

Expanding Scope of Rights

Times have changed drastically since the days when our Constitution was written. Demands for many new fundamental rights have been coming up time and again. Some of these demands have been included under the scope of fundamental rights. For example, the Right to Education has been included in the list recently. As per this right, every child has the right to get elementary education. Similarly, RTI (Right to Information) was enacted recently. Under RTI, anybody can demand information regarding the functions of a government department or official. The RTI has helped in bringing transparency in working of government departments.