Class 9 Geography

Thorn Forests and Scrubs

Thorn forests grow in those regions which receive less than 70 cm of rainfall. This type of vegetation is found in the north-western part of India, e.g. Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.

The main plant species in such a forest are acacia, palms, euphorbias and cactus. The trees are scattered and they have long roots which go very deep in the ground. The stems are succulent to conserve water. Leaves are usually modified into thorns to prevent evaporation. Camel, rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horse, etc. are the common animals in thorny forests.

Montane Forests

The forests in the mountainous areas are called montane forest. Different types of vegetation are found at different altitudes in the mountains.

types of vegetation India map
  1. The wet temperate type of forest is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metre. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oak and chestnut abound in such forests.
  2. Temperate forests are found between the heights of 1500 and 3000 metre. Coniferous trees; like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar abound in such forests.
  3. Alpine vegetation are found are heights of more than 3600 metre.

These forests are mainly found along the southern slopes of the Himalayas and at high altitudes in southern and north-eastern India. Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, Shaggy horn wild ibex, bear, rare red panda, sheep and goats are the common animals in these forests.