Class 9 Geography

Mangrove Forests

Mangrove forests are found in the deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavarai and the Kaveri. Roots of the mangrove plants are submerged under water. Hollow roots grow out vertically above water so that roots can breathe. Sundari tree is the most common tree in such forests; especially in the Sunderban Delta. Royal Bengal Tiger is the most famous animal of these forests. Additionally, turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are found in these forests.

Type of VegetationRainfallAreasFloraFauna
RainforestMore than 200 cmWestern Ghats, North-eastern India, Islands Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchonaElephants, monkey, lemur and deer
Deciduous Forest70 to 100 cmBihar, UP, MP, W. Bengal, Maharashtra, etc. Teak, bamboo, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberryLion, tiger, pig, deer and elephant
Thorny BushesLess than 70 cmRajasthan, Gujarat acacia, palms, euphorbias and cactusCamel, rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horse, etc.
Montane ForestN/AHimalayas and North-east Pine, deodar, fir, cedar, etc.Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, Shaggy horn wild ibex, bear, rare red panda, sheep and goats
Mangrove ForestN/ADelta of Ganga, Mahanadi, Kaveri, Godavari Sundari, OrchidRoyal Bengal Tiger


There are more than 89,000 animal species in India. There are more than 1200 species of birds in India. Elephants are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala. One-horned rhinos are found in the swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal. Wild ass and camels are found in the Rann of Kachchh and Thar Desert. Indian bison, nilgai, chousingha, gazel and many other species of deer and some other animals are found in India. India is the only country in the world which has both tigers and lions.

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