Class 9 History

Nazism: Weimar Republic

  • Defeat of Germany
  • Versailles Treaty

The first half of the twentieth century was the period of massive upheavals for the world, especially for Europe. This was the period when the World Wars happened, which changed the world forever. One of the fallouts of the First World War was the rise of Nazism and Hitler in Germany. The weird perspective of the Nazis resulted in horrible outcomes.

In this lesson, you will read about the rise and effects of Nazism.

Let us first try to understand the background which gave enough opportunity to Hitler to gain a foothold. Germany was a powerful empire in the early years of the twentieth century. It fought the First World War (1914-1918) alongside the Austrian empire and against the Allies (England, France and Russia). The Allies were strengthened by the US entry in 1917 and won the war in November 1918.

Defeat of Germany

The defeat of the Imperial Germany paved the way for democratic republic in Germany. The parliamentary parties met at the National Assembly at Weimar and established a democratic constitution with a federal structure. Universal suffrage was allowed for electing the Deputies to the German Parliament (Reichstag).

Versailles Treaty

But after the First World War, Germany was forced to accept certain terms which hurt the pride of the German people.

As per the peace treaty signed at Versailles, Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population, 13% of its territories, 75% of its iron and 26% of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania. To weaken its power, the Allied Powers demilitarized Germany.

The War Guilt Clause forced Germany to pay compensation amounting to £6 billion. The resource rich Rhineland was occupied by the Allied armies for much of the 1920s. Because of these developments, many Germans were not happy with the Weimar Republic.

French Revolution

The French Revolution was an important event in modern history because it catalyzed many changes which have had far reaching consequences. French Revolution initiated the change from monarchy to democracy.

Socialism in Europe

Socialism is a political, social and economic philosophy. The idea of socialism caught the fancy of many during the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

Nazism and Rise of Hitler

Hitler understood the significance of rituals and spectacle in mass mobilization. He used the Swastika symbol, red banners, pamphlets and ritualized rounds of applause to great effect during his massive rallies.

Forest Society and Colonialism

In this lesson, you will learn about the effects of colonialism on forests and forest society. You will mainly read about the forests and tribes of India.

Pastoralists in the Modern World

In this lesson, you will read about pastoralists of India and Africa. You will learn about various changes in their life, brought about by colonial rule and modernization.

Peasants and Farmers

The industrial revolution began from England, and subsequently spread to most parts of the world. It changed the life of everyone. Farmers too were affected by industrial revolution.

Story of Cricket

The unique nature of cricket has been shaped by the social and economic history of England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Compared to other modern sports, a typical game of cricket takes a longer time to finish.

History of Clothes

The style of dress changes according to times, occasion, social status, cultural ethos, etc. In this lesson, you will read about social history of clothing.