Class 9 Geography


Population: In sociology, population means collection of human beings.

Demography: It is a branch of social science which deals with statistical study of human population.

Census: An official enumeration of population which is done periodically is called census. The first census in India was conducted in 1872, but the first complete census was conducted in 1881. After that, the census has been done every ten years.

Population Size and Distribution

According to 2011 census, the population of India is 1.21 billion.

India’s population is 17.5% of the world population, while the area of India is just 2.4% of the total area of the world.

Population Density

The population density in India is 382 persons per sq km. Bihar has the highest population density which is 1102 persons per sq km. Arunachal Pradesh has the least population density which is 17 persons per sq km. About 50% of India’s population lives in the five states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan which is the biggest state comprises just 5% of the population of India.

The level land and highly fertile grounds of the northern plains are conducive for much of human activities and hence these areas are densely populated. Similarly, the coastal plains of Tamil Nadu and Kerala are densely populated. On the other hand, a major part of Rajasthan is covered with sandy desert and hence has less population density. Similarly, the uneven terrain of hilly areas is not fit to support a huge population.

Population Growth and Process of Population Change

The population growth in 2011 over the 2001 census has been 9.3% and India ranks 93rd in the world on this aspect. This means that the population growth in the last decade has been a little less than 2% per annum. This is less than the population growth between 1991 and 2001. This is a positive sign that the growth rate is showing a declining trend.

Birth Rate

The number of live births per 1000 persons is called the birth rate. According to 2011 census, the birth rate in India is 20.22 births per 1000 persons.

Death Rate

The number of deaths per 1000 persons is called the death rate. According to 2011 census, the death rate in India is 7.4 deaths per 1000 persons.

A higher birth rate coupled with a lower death rate results in an increase in population. Because of advancements in healthcare and nutrition, the death rate has reduced over the period. The birth rates have also reduced because of sustained campaign towards family planning and increased awareness among people. Yet the birth rate needs to be reduced even further.


Migration is another factor which changes the size of population. Movement of people from one place to another; in search of livelihood is called migration. Migration within the country is called internal migration, while that between two countries is called international migration. Internal migration has no change on population size but it changes the population composition of a particular area.

Reasons for Migration

Poverty and lack of employment opportunities in rural areas work as ‘push’ factors which result in migration to urban areas. Better employment opportunities in urban areas work as ‘pull’ factors for migration. Due to increased migration towards urban areas, the share of urban population has increased from 17.29% in 1951 to 27.78% in 2001.