Class 10 Science

Control and Coordination

These notes are based on the chapter Control and Coordination class 10 science of NCERT book and CBSE syllabus

  • Importance of control and coordination
  • Structure of neuron

Importance of control and coordination

A living being does not live in isolation. It has to constantly interact with its external environment and has to respond properly for its survival.

For example, when a hungry lion spots a deer, the lion has to quickly make a move so that it can have its food. On the other hand, the deer needs to quickly make a move to run for its life.

The responses which a living being makes in relation to external stimuli are controlled and coordinated by a system, especially in complex animals.


Neuron is a highly specialized cell which is responsible for transmission of nerve impulses. The neuron consists of the following parts:

neuron structure

Fig: Neuron

  1. Cyton or cell body: The cell body or cyton is somewhat star-shaped, with many hair-like structures protruding out of the margin. These hair-like structures are called dendrites. Dendrites receive the nerve impulses.
  2. Axon: This is the tail of the neuron. It ends in several hair-like structures, called axon terminals. The axon terminals relay nerve impulses.
  3. Myelin Sheath: There is an insulator cover around the axon. This is called myelin sheath. The myelin sheath insulates the axon against nerve impulses from the surroundings. It works in the same way as plastic casing of an electric cable.

Movement of nerve impulse through a neuron

Dendrite ⇨ Cell body ⇨ Axon ⇨ Axonal end

Types of Neuron

  1. Sensory neuron: These neurons receive signals from a sense organ. For example; sensory neurons present under skin pick up signals from external stimuli. When you touch a hot or a cold object, the sensory neurons in your skin pick up signals.
  2. Motor neuron: These neurons send signals to a muscle or a gland. When you move your hands, the movement happens because of signals from motor neuron.
  3. Association neuron: These neurons relay the signals between sensory neuron and motor neuron.

More from this Lesson