Class 10 Science

Control and Coordination Human Brain

These notes are based on the chapter Control and Coordination class 10 science of NCERT book and CBSE syllabus

  • Cerebrum
  • Hypothalamus
  • Cerebellum
  • Medulla

Human brain is a highly complex organ, which is mainly composed of the nervous tissue. The tissues are highly folded to accommodate a larger surface area in less space. This is similar to the way we fold clothes in order to pack more cloths in a suitcase.

The brain is covered by a three layered system of membranes. These membranes are called meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid is filled between the meninges. The CSF provides cushion to the brain against mechanical shocks. Furthermore, the brain is housed inside the skull for optimum protection. The human brain can be divided into three regions, viz. forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.

Parts of Human Brain

  1. Forebrain: It is composed of the cerebrum.
  2. Midbrain: It is composed of the hypothalamus.
  3. Hindbrain: It is composed of the cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata.
human brain

Some main structures of the human brain are explained below.


The cerebrum is the largest part in the human brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, called cerebral hemispheres.

Functions of cerebrum

  • The cerebrum controls the voluntary motor actions. Actions which facilitate mobility are called motor actions. For example, movement of hands and feet are motor actions.
  • It is the site of sensory perceptions, like tactile and auditory perceptions. Sense of touch is called tactile percetption. Sense of hearing is called auditory perception.
  • It is the seat of learning and memory.


The hypothalamus lies at the base of the cerebrum. It controls sleep and wake cycle (circadian rhythm) of the body. It also controls the urges for eating and drinking.


Cerebellum lies below the cerebrum and at the back of the whole structure. It coordinates the motor functions. When you are riding your bicycle, the perfect coordination between your pedaling and steering control is achieved by the cerebellum.


Medulla forms the brain stem, along with the pons. It lies at the base of the brain and continues into the spinal cord. Medulla controls various involuntary functions, like heart beat, respiration, etc.

More from this Lesson