Reproduction in Plants and Animals

Chapter Summary


The process by which a living being produces its offspring.

Reproduction is not essential to maintain the life of an individual organism.

DNA Replication

Making a copy of DNA is the first important step of reproduction.

Additional copies of DNA are required to make a new living being.

Types of Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction: Single parent involved and no gamete formation.

Sexual Reproduction: Two parents involved and gamete formation happens.

Methods of Asexual Reproduction

Fission: Unicellular organism divides into two or more daughter cells.

Budding: A bud forms on parent’s body and grows into a new individual.

Regeneration: A broken piece of organism develops into new individual.

Vegetative Propagation

Asexual reproduction through vegetative parts of a plant such as root, stem and leaf.

Examples: Tuber of potato, stem cutting of rose

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Pollination: Transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma.

Fertilisation: Fusion of male gamete with female gamete.

Seed Development: Zygote develops into seeds which germinate to produce new plant.


Changes in body during adolescence to attain reproductive maturity.

These changes prepare the body for reproduction.

Male Reproductive System

Testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, urethra and penis are the main parts.

Testes produce sperms and male hormone testosterone.

Female Reproductive System

Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina are the main parts.

Ovaries produce eggs and female hormone estrogen.

Fertilsation and Conception

Sperms enter through vagina and fertilization happens in fallopian tube.

Embryo is implanted in uterus where child development happens.


Means of avoiding pregnancy are called contraception.

Examples: condom, oral pills, copper-T, vasectomy, tubectomy, etc.