Class 10 Civics

Federalism

Federalism: NCERT Solution

A few subjects in various Lists of the Indian Constitution are given here. Group them under the Union, State and Concurrent Lists as provided in the table below.
A. Defence; B. Police; C. Agriculture; D. Education; E. Banking; F. Forests; G. Communications; H. Trade; I. Marriages

Answer:

Union List Defence, banking, communications, marriage, etc.
State List Agriculture, police
Concurrent List Education, forest, trade


Answer the following questions:

  • Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.
    Answer: Feature similar to Belgium: Holding together federation.
    Feature different from Belgium: Less autonomy of provincial government in the Indian federation.
  • >What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.
    Answer: In case of a unitary government, the central government is all powerful and the lower tier of governance does not enjoy any real power. This can be seen in case of many dictatorships and monarchies in the world, e.g. Libya, Saudi Arabia, etc.
  • State any two differences between the local government before and after the Constitutional amendment in 1992.
    Answer: Before the Constitutional amendment in 1992, the local government did not enjoy constitutional authority. Elections to the local bodies were not conducted on a regular basis.
  • Fill in the blanks:
    Answer: Since the United States is a coming together type of federation, all the constituent States have equal powers and States are stronger vis-à-vis the federal government. But India is a holding together type of federation and some States have more power than others. In India, the Union government has more powers.
  • Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions.
    Sangeeta: The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity.
    Arman: Language-based States have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language.
    Harish: This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages.

    Answer: The argument by Sangeeta is more appropriate. Language is not just a tool for communication but it is part of the culture and mindset which take hundreds of years to evolve. People are sentimentally attached to their language. The language policy of India is an attempt to instill a sense of respect of others’ culture and this has definitely helped in strengthening national unity.

  • The distinguishing feature of a federal government is:
    • National government gives some powers to the provincial governments.
    • Power is distributed among the legislature, executive and judiciary.
    • Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government.
    • Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.

    Answer: (d) Government power is divided between different levels of government
  • Examine the following pairs that give the level of government in India and the powers of the government at that level to make laws on the subjects mentioned against each. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
    • State government: State List
    • Central government: Union List
    • Central and State governments: Concurrent List
    • Local governments: Residual power

    Answer: (d) Local governments: Residual power
  • Consider the following statements.
    • In a federation the powers of the federal and provincial governments are clearly demarcated.
    • India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction on their respective subjects.
    • Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces.
    • India is no longer a federation because some powers of the States have been devolved to the local government bodies.

    Which of the statements given above are correct?
    • A, B and C
    • A, C and D
    • A and B only
    • B and C only

    Answer: (a) A, B and C