Class 10 History

Nationalism in Indo China

  • Early History of Indo-China
  • French domination of Indo-China

Early History

Indo-China comprises the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Its early history shows many different groups of people living in this area under the shadow of the powerful empire of China.

Even when an independent country was established in what is now northern and central Vietnam, its rulers continued to maintain the Chinese system of government as well as Chinese culture.

Vietnam was also linked to the maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas. Other networks of trade connected it to the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as the Khmer Cambodians lived.

The French Domination

Colonial Domination: French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region. After the Franco-Chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam and, in 1887, French Indo-China was formed.

Need of Colony for French

For many European powers, colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods. Moreover, the colonizers thought it was the mission of the ‘advanced’ European nations to civilize the backward people.

For increasing cultivation, the French began to build canals to irrigate the land in the Mekong delta. This helped in increasing rice production. The area under rice cultivation went up from 274,000 hectares in 1873 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million in 1930. Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.

After that, the French began to work on infrastructure projects. This was necessary for transportation of goods for trade and also for moving military garrisons in the entire region. Construction of a trans-Indo-China rail network began in this period and the final link with Yunnan in China was completed by 1910. The second line was built to link Vietnam to Siam (early name of Thailand).

Should Colonies be Developed

Paul Bernard was an eminent French thinker. He believed in developing infrastructure in Vietnam so that people could become more prosperous. A prosperous public would mean a better market for the French business. He also advocated for land reforms so that farm output could be improved.

The colonial economy in Vietnam was mainly based on rice cultivation and rubber plantation. Rail and port facilities were set up to service this sector. Little effort was made by the French to industrialise the economy.

Nationalism in Europe

Idea of nation states emerged during late 18th century in France. This idea then spread to rest of the Europe; followed by to the remaining part of the world.

Nationalism in Indo-China

French occupation of modern day Vietnam caused conflict between local and colonisers. The conflict culminated in partition of Vietnam; followed by US occupation of Vietnam.

Nationalism in India

Mahatma Gandhi started a novel method of satyagraha to fight the mighty British. Non-cooperation movement and Civil Disobedience movement were the key phases of his over two decades long fight to throw out the British rule from India.

Making of Global World

After the Europeans reached different parts of the world, various factors and events helped them to develop colonies in Asia, Africa and Americas. This phase was followed by World Wars resulting in dramatic changes in geopolitical scenario in the world.

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution began from Europe; especially from Britain. Subsequently, industrial revolution also happened in the colonies. It caused far-reaching changes in the economy and society.

Work and Leisure

London grew from a small city to a megapolis because of industrial revolution. During this transformation, London underwent various changes in town planning, infrastructure and also on socioeconomic aspect. Bombay has more or less similar story to tell.

Print Culture and Society

Print technology came to Europe from China. Print technology transformed the way of dissemination of knowledge and information. Books became cheaper and allowed the common masses to enjoy the fruits of knowledge.

Novel Society

Novels were a new form of writing and were the product of development of print technology. Novels gave rise to a new genre of writing and to a new reading audience.