Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Question 1: Why does the ground of the rainforest remain dark and damp?
Answer: Because the dense and thick growth of trees does not allow sunlight to reach the ground.
Question 2: Name the areas the Amazon River basin drains.
Answer: Portions of Brazil, parts of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Columbia and a small part of Venezuela.
Question 3: What are the animals found in the rainforests?
Answer: Monkeys, sloth, ant-eating tapirs, crocodiles, pythons, anaconda, Piranha fish and other variety of fishes.
Question 4: Name the tributaries of the river Ganga.
Answer: The Ghaghara, the Son, the Kosi, the Chambal, the Gandak.
Question 5: Which animals are found in the Ganga –Brahmaputra basin?
Answer: Elephants, deer, one-horned rhinoceros, tigers, alligators, Bengal tiger, crocodiles and variety of fishes.
Question 6: Name the main features of the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin.
Answer: The main features of this basin are the plains of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra, the mountains and the foothills of the Himalayas and the Sundarbans delta.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question 1: What are the activities taken up by the people of the Amazon basin?
Answer: People in the Amazon basin grow most of their food in small areas after clearing the trees in the forest. Men hunt and fish; and women take care of the crops. The main crops include tapioca, pineapple and sweet potato.
Question 2: Write a note on the climate of the Amazon basin.
Answer: It is characterized by hot and wet climate throughout the year. It rains almost every day here. The temperature during the day is very high; the humidity is also high during the day. The temperature at night decreases, but there is high humidity. Hence, both the day and night are almost equally hot and humid.
Question 3: What are the modes of transport available in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin?
Answer: All the modes of transport are well developed in the Ganga- Brahmaputra basin. The plain area has a good network of roadways, railways and a large number of airports. The transport, particularly along the rivers is an effective means of waterways transport. Kolkata is an important port on the River Hooghly.
Question 4: List the tourist spots/attractions in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin?
Answer: Some of the tourist spots in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin area are listed below:
|Prayagraj (Allahabad)||Confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna|
|Uttar Pradesh and Bihar||Buddhist Stupas|
|Assam||Kaziranga, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary|
|Arunachal Pradesh||Distinct tribal culture|
Long Answer Type Questions
Question 1: Describe the flora and fauna of the Ganga- Brahmaputra basin.
Answer: The flora and fauna of the Ganga-Brahmaputra region is as follows:
- Flora: In the Ganga – Brahmaputra plain tropical deciduous trees grow, along with teak, sal and peepal. Brahmaputra plain has thick bamboo groves. The delta is covered with mangrove forests. Coniferous trees like pine, deodar and fir are found in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Sikkim.
- Fauna: There is a wide variety of wildlife in this basin. The common animals are monkeys, tigers, deer and elephants. The Brahmaputra plain has one-horned rhinoceros. In the delta area, Bengal tiger, crocodiles and alligator are found. There is abundant aquatic life too. Rohu, catla and hilsa are the most popular varieties of fish.
Question 2: Write a note on the people of the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin and their activities.
Answer: Agriculture is taken up as the main occupation where flat land is available to grow crops. The main crop is paddy. The staple diet of the people is fish and rice. Since it requires sufficient water, it is grown in areas where rainfall is high. The other crops that are grown include wheat, maize, millet and gram. Cash crops such as sugarcane and jute are also grown. Tea plantations are found in West Bengal and Assam. Banana plantations are seen in the plains. In Bihar and Assam, silk is produced by rearing silkworms. Crops are grown on the terraces of the hills that have gentle slopes.
Question 3: Write a short note on the habitats of the people of the Amazon basin and the changes that have taken place in the area.
Answer: Some people live in thatched houses shaped like beehives. Apartment – like houses called ‘Maloca’ with a steeply slanting roof are also found. With passage of time, the life of the people of this area is slowly changing. Previously, navigating through the river was the only means to reach the heart of the rainforest. But the Trans Amazon highway was made in 1970. It made all parts of the rainforest accessible. Aircrafts and helicopters are used to reach all previously inaccessible places. The indigenous people were forced to relocate where they continued with their distinctive way of farming.
Question 4: What is slash and burn agriculture?
Answer: Slash and burn agriculture is a way of cultivating land in which farmers cultivate a piece of land by slashing/cutting the trees and bushes. These are then burnt, which releases the nutrients in the soil. New crops are grown in this cleared field for a few years. Since the fertility of the land is lost after a few years of cultivation, the used land is abandoned and a new set of land is cleared for cultivation. In the mean time young trees grow in the old field. In this way soil fertility is restored. People can then return to the old land and start cultivating it again.