- Mughal campaigns
- Major events
- Zat rankings
- Mughal Rajput Marriages
Jahangir’s court - Nur Jahan’s influence: Mehrunnisa married the Emperor Jahangir in 1611 and she received the title Nur Jahan. As a reward for her loyalty and support, Jahangir struck silver coins bearing his own titles on one side and on the other the inscription “struck in the name of the Queen Begum, Nur Jahan.” Nur Jahan’s farman (order) has praising and respecting words for her.
Babur (1526 - 1530)
- Defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and his Afghan supporters.
- Defeated Rana sanga, Rajput rulers and allies
- Established control over Agra and Delhi before his death.
Humayun (1530 - 1540 and 1555 - 1556)
- His brothers were each given a province. His brother’s (Mirza Kamran) ambitions weakened his cause against Afghan competitors.
- Was defeated by Sher Khan at Chausa and Kanauj
- Recaptured Delhi in 1555.
Akbar (1556 - 1605)
- Was 13 years old when he became emperor.
- 1556 – 1570: launched military campaigns against the Suris and other Afghans, against kingdoms of Malwa and Gondwana, and to suppress the revolt of his half brother Mirza Hakim and Uzbegs. Seized Chittor and Ranthambor.
- 1570 – 1585: Campaigns in Gujarat were followed by those in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. Revolt in support of Mirza Hakim complicated these.
- 1585 – 1605: expanded the empire. Seized Qandahar, annexed Kashmir and Kabul. Deccan campaigns seized Khandesh, Berar and Ahmadnagar. Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir; distracted Akbar during the last years of his reign.
Jahangir (1605 - 1627)
- Continued Akbar’s military campaigns, defeated Sisodiya ruler of Mewar.
- Had less successful campaigns against the Sikhs, Ahoms and Ahmadnagar.
- Prince Khurram, the future emperor Shah Jahan rebelled in his last reigning years. His wife, Nur Jahan’s efforts to marginalize him were in vain.
Shah Jahan (1627 - 1658)
- Continued campaigns in the Deccan.
- Defeated Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi and Bundelas (seized Orchha).
- Lost Qandahar to Safavids
- Failed to seize Balkh
- Annexed Ahmadnagar
- His sons had conflict over succession; which Aurangzeb won and killed his three brothers. Shah Jahan was imprisoned for the rest of his life in Agra.
Aurangzeb (1658 - 1707)
- Defeated Ahoms but they rebelled again
- Intervened in the internal politics of Rathor Rajputs
- Insulted Shivaji who escaped from Agra, declared himself an independent king and resumed his campaigns against the Mughals.
- Prince Akbar who rebelled against him and received support from the Marathas and the Deccan Sultanate; finally fled to Safavid Iran.
- Annexed Bijapur and Golconda. Personally managed campaigns in the Deccan against the Marathas. Also faced rebellion in north India; of the Sikhs, jats and satnamis and in the north-east; of the Ahoms and in the Deccan; of the Marathas.
- There was a succession conflict amongst his sons after his death.
Kings and Queens
There were many great monarchs in the sixteenth century in different parts of the world. One of them is the ruler of Ottoman Turkey, Sultan Suleyman (1520-1566). He expanded the Ottoman state into Europe, seizing Hungary and besieging Austria. He also seized Baghdad and Iraq. He also reconstructed the Ottoman navy. The monarch was given the title of ‘al-Qanuni’ i.e. the lawgiver because of the large number of regulations passed during his reign. These regulations were aimed to standardise administrative procedures throughout the empire and these specifically aimed to protect the peasantry from forced labour and extraordinary taxes. His reign was remembered as a period of ideal governance when public order declined in the17th century.
Zat rankings: Nobles with a zat of 5000 were ranked higher than those having a zat of 1000. During Akbar’s reign there were 29 mansabdars having a zat of 5000; the number had increased to 79 during Aurangzeb’s reign.
Mughal Rajpur Marriages: The mothers of Jahangir and Shah Jahan were Rajputs. While the former was a Kachhwaha princess and daughter of the Rajput ruler of Amber; the latter was a Rathor princess (daughter of the Rajput ruler of Marwar).
- Dogma: A statement or an interpretation declared as authoritative with the expectation that it will be followed without question/objection.
- Bigot: An individual who is intolerant of other person’s religious beliefs or culture.
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