Nationalism in India
Question – 1 - Explain:
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
Answer: Anti-colonial movement gave a strong issue to the people with which they could identify and could come on a common platform. Hence, the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
Answer: The First World War created huge economic problems for the people in India. Moreover, forced conscription of the Indians in the British army also alienated the people from the colonial rulers. The situation was ripe for the nationalist leaders to motivate the people against the colonial rulers. Thus, the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
Answer: The Rowlatt Act gave draconian powers to the colonial rulers. It was against the spirit of political formations and protests. Due to this, Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer: By 1921, the movement was turning violent at many places. Since Gandhiji was strictly against any kind of violence, he decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Question – 2 - What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi advocated a novel method of mass agitation; called satyagraha. This method was based on the idea that if someone is fighting for a true cause, there is no need to take recourse to physical force to fight the oppressor. Gandhiji believed that a satyagrahi could win a battle through non-violence, i.e. without being aggressive or revengeful.
Question – 3 - Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Answer: Amritsar, 13th April 1919: The British General Dyer had ordered firing on innocent villagers who had gathered at Jallianwalla Bagh to attend a fair. All the exit points were blocked so that nobody could escape the wrath of the British forces.
Thousands of people died in the firing. The whole country is stunned at this mass massacre. Even many British intellectuals have criticized the firing on innocents.
(b) The Simon Commission
Answer: London 1928: The British government has constituted the Simon Commission to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India. It is being said that the Commission would come with some new changes to make a new administrative system in India. What is ironic about this Commission is that there is no single Indian in the Commission. Most of the thinkers are perplexed that how an all British team would take decisions on matters which are more relevant to India. The leaders of the Congress and other parties have announced their boycott to the Simon Commission.
Question – 4 - Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Answer: In both the cases, a woman has been depicted as the motherland. Both the figures have been dressed in the traditional attire and hold certain symbolic items. These symbolic items represent freedom, liberty, peace and energy.
Question – 5 - List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Answer: Peasants, tribal peasants, plantation workers, students, lawyers, office workers, women, etc. joined the Non-Cooperation Movement. Description of three of them is given below.
Peasant: The peasants were against the high rents and may other cess which were demanded by talukdars and landlords. The peasants demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
Tribal Peasants: Tribal peasants gave their own interpretation of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of swaraj. The tribals were prevented from entering the forests to graze cattle, or to collect fruits and firewood. The new forest laws were a threat to their livelihood. The government forced them to do begar on road construction.
Plantation Workers: The plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission; as per the Indian Emigration Act of 1859. When the news of Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the plantations, many workers began to defy the authorities.
Question – 6 - Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Answer: Salt was a powerful symbol which could connect with all the people of India. Salt was used by everyone; rich and poor in the same way. For poor people, abolition of salt tax would have meant a reduction price. For the businessmen, it meant that they could expect abolition of more such laws which were working against the Indian business community.
Question – 7 - Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
Answer: A woman’s role is always considered to be of a homemaker. But by participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement, I could be a part of the nation making process. It was a motivating experience for me when I tended to those injured in the lathi charge. It was like taking care of my own brother.
Question – 8 - Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Answer: Muslim leaders; like Jinnah believed that the future of the Muslims would not be in safe hand under the Hindu majority. He wanted a greater political empowerment for his own community. For dalit leaders; like Ambedkar; the situation was more or less same. Given the past history of oppression against the dalits, the dalit leaders were apprehensive of their position under the political power of the upper caste people. Mahatma Gandhi, on the other hand, believed that separate electorates would further alienate those people. He felt that separate electorate would slow down the process of integration of the fringe group into the mainstream.
Nationalism in India -Class ten-History- The 1st World war, Khilafat and non-cooperation
Nationalism in India - Class ten SST - History - Civil disobedience movement
Nationalism in India - Class ten SST - History - People's perception of the movement