Class 8 History

From Trade to Territory

NCERT Solution

Question 1: Match the following:

Column AColumn B
(a) Diwani(1) Tipu Sultan
(b) Tiger of Mysore(2) Right to collect land revenue
(c) Fauzdari adalat(3) Sepoy
(d) Rani Channamma(4) Criminal court
(e) Sipahi(5) Led an anti-British movement in Kittoor

Answer:(a) → 2, (b) → 1, (c) → 4, (d) → 5, (e) → 3

Question 2: Fill in the blanks:

  1. The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of ___________.

    Answer: Plassey
  2. Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of ___________.

    Answer: Mysore
  3. Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of ___________.

    Answer: Lapse
  4. Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the ___________ part of India.

    Answer: south-western

Question 3: State whether true or false:

  1. The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.
  2. The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India.
  3. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab.
  4. The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.

Answer: (a) False, (b) False, (c) True, (d) False

Question 4: What attracted European trading companies to India?

Answer: Indian cotton and silk was in great demand in Europe. Indian spices were also in great demand. Goods could be bought at cheaper rates from India and could be sold at higher rates in Europe. This prospect attracted the European trading companies to India.

Question 5: What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company?

Answer: The Bengal nawabs wanted tributes from the Company in lieu of granting the right to trade. The Company was forbidden from minting its own coins and from expanding fortifications. The Company wanted to expand its settlement and wanted special privileges.

Question 6: How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?

Answer: This was a major breakthrough for the Company because Diwani allowed it to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal. The Company could use the revenue to finance its trade and other expenses. It could also use the revenue to strengthen its military power.

Question 7: Explain the system of “subsidiary alliance”.

Answer: According to this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. The Company army was to protect the Indian state but the ruler had to pay for the “subsidiary forces”. If an Indian ruler failed to make the payment, then part of his territory was taken away as penalty. For example; Awadh and Hyderabad were forced to cede territories on this ground.

Question 8: In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?

Answer: The Company made a proper system of administration. The Indian rulers did not have a proper system of administration. The Company took suggestions from pundits and maulvis before making new laws for criminal and civil cases. The Indian rulers seldom thought about respecting local sensibilities before making any rule.

Question 9: Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army.

Answer: The infantry regiment became more important. In the early nineteenth century the British began to develop a uniform military culture. Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European-style training. Now, drill and discipline that regulated their life far more than before.