NCERT Exercise Solution
Question 7: Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger?
Answer: Chronic hunger is prevalent among those who earn very low and thus suffer from hunger for most of the time. Seasonal hunger is related to agricultural cycle. Many landless farm workers and marginal farmers may be suffering from seasonal hunger.
Question 8: What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government?
Answer: In the 1970s, three important food intervention progammes were introduced to tackle the shortage of food:
- Public Distribution System (PDS): This system was made to ensure smooth supply of subsidized food items to the poor.
- Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): These services were introduced to provide proper nutrition to poor children.
- Food for Work (FFW): This programme was introduced to help the poor to earn food in lieu of some work.
Question 9: Why buffer stock is created by the government?
Answer: Buffer stock has been created to meet any exigencies. The buffer stock can be utilised in case of drought or flood or any natural calamity.
Question 10: Write notes on:
(a) Minimum support price
Answer The government procures foodgrains and some other farm produce through the FCI. For this, the government announced MSP (Minimum Support Price).
(b) Buffer stock
Answer The extra stock of foodgrains maintained by the FCI is called buffer stock. This stock is utilised in case of drought or flood or any natural calamity.
(c) Issue price
Answer The price at which foodgrains are sold through the PDS is called issue price. The issue price is always lower than the market price.
(d) Fair price shops
Answer The ration shops which come under the PDS are called fair price shops.
Question 11: What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops?
Answer: There have many instances of poor management and corruption. Many people complain that after the segregation of APL and BPL, people holding the APL card seldom go to the ration shops because of minor variations with the market prices. The ration shopkeepers often siphon off the foodgrains into open market and sell poor quality foodgrains through the ration shop. The shopkeepers are also erratic in their behaviour because of which many people suffer.
Question 12: Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.
Answer: Cooperatives are playing important role in providing food and related items at fair prices. AMUL is an example of cooperative which procures and sells milk to most parts of India. Mother Dairy sells milk and dairy products and vegetables through its various outlets.