Fig:States of Matter
Solid: Solid has definite shape and definite volume. Examples: Stones, wood, plastic, common salt, steel, ice, glass, etc.
Liquid: Liquid has indefinite shape but definite volume. Examples: Water, milk, oil, etc.
Gas: Gas has indefinite shape and indefinite volume. Examples: Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc.
Appearance: Different materials look different from each other. The appearance depends on colour, hardness, texture, and lustre.
Hardness: hardness is another property of materials. Some materials are very hard while some are very soft.
Hard: Material which are difficult to compress are called hard, e.g. diamond, stone, wood, steel, etc. Diamond is the hardest natural substance.
Soft: Materials which can be compressed easily are called soft, e.g. chalk, cotton, rubber, etc.
Soluble: Material which easily dissolves in water is called soluble, e.g. salt, sugar, alum, etc.
Insoluble: Material which does not dissolve in water is called insoluble, e.g. sand, chalk, iron, etc.
Note: Since water is considered as universal solvent, so solubility in water is taken as standard in most of the definitions; related to solubility.
Transparent: The material which allows light to pass through it is called transparent, e.g. acrylic sheet, glass, water, air, etc.
Opaque: The material which does not allow light to pass through it is called opaque, e.g. wood, iron, asbestos, etc.
Translucent: The material through which light can pass partially is called translucent, e.g. butter paper, thin curtain, etc.
Metals: Materials which are hard, have such luster and are good conductors of heat and electricity are called metals, e.g. iron, copper, gold, etc.
Non-metal: Materials which are brittle, which don’t have luster and are bad conductors of heat and electricity are called non-metals, e.g. coal, chalk, rubber, soil, etc.
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