Class 10 Civics

Gender Religion and Caste

Gender Religion and Caste: NCERT Solution

Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:

Answer:

List I List II
A person who believes in equal opportunities and rights for men and women. Feminist
A person who says that religion is the principal basis of community. Communalist
A person who thinks that caste is the principal basis of community Casteist
A person who does not discriminate other on the basis of religious beliefs Secularist


Answer the following questions:

  • Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India.
    Answer: Some of the examples of discrimination against women are as follows:
    • The literacy rate among women is only 54 per cent compared with 76 per cent among men.
    • The percentage of women in highly paid jobs is still very small. At many workplaces, women are paid less than men for the same job. An Indian woman usually works more hour than an average man on a daily basis.
    • Many Indian parents prefer to have a male child. A girl child is killed before her birth in many cases. This has led to an eschewed sex ratio in India.
    • There are many reports of harassment against women; both on the domestic front and outside the home.
  • State different forms of communal politics with one example each.
    Answer: Many people think of their religion as superior to all other religions. Such people often try to dominate the people from other communities. This can result in people from the minority community to form a separate political unit. In countries; like Sri Lanka, Nepal and Pakistan; a particular religion is the official religion and this practice is propagating majority tyranny.
    Sometimes, sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal, etc. are used to instill a sense of fear among people of a particular community. This is done with an attempt to polarize people on communal lines. Many news articles appear related to fanning communal tension from time to time.
  • State how caste inequalities are still continuing in India.
    Answer: Economic inequalities exist on the basis of caste. The upper caste people are usually well off, the backward classes come in between and the dalits and adivasis are at the bottom. The percentage of people below poverty line is much higher among the lowest castes.
  • State two reasons to say that caste alone cannot determine election results in India.
    Answer: If a particular constituency has a particular caste in significant number, then most of the political parties try to field their candidate from that caste. Votes from that caste then get divided along different political affiliations. There are many instances when a sitting legislator loses election in spite of the caste equation in favour of him. Most of the political parties focus on a combination of many castes rather than on a single caste; in order to strike a winning arithmetic. These things suggest that caste alone cannot determine election results in India.
  • What is the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies?
    Answer: Women’s reservation is very poor in Parliament and state legislatures. Number of women legislatures is not more than 10%. However, the number of women representatives in local governing bodies has increased because of 33% reservation. At present, there are about 10 lakh women in local bodies.

  • Mention any two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state.
    Answer: The Constitution of India declares that India is a secular state. Unlike some of the neighbouring countries, there is no official religion for the Indian state.
    The constitution gives the people the freedom to practice a religion of their choice. The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
  • When we speak of gender divisions, we usually refer to:
    • Biological difference between men and women
    • Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and wome
    • Unequal child sex ratio
    • Absence of voting rights for women in democracies

    Answer: (b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women
  • In India seats are reserved for women in
    • Lok Sabha
    • State legislative assemblies
    • Cabinets
    • Panchayati Raj bodies

    Answer: (d) Panchayati Raj bodies
  • Consider the following statements on the meaning of communal politics. Communal politics is based on the belief that:
    • One religion is superior to that of others.
    • People belonging to different religions can live together happily as equal citizens.
    • Followers of a particular religion constitute one community.
    • State power cannot be used to establish the domination of one religious group over others.

    Which of the statements is/are correct?
    • A, B, C, and D
    • A, B, and D
    • A and C
    • B and D

    Answer: (c) A and C
  • Which among the following statements about India’s Constitution is wrong? It
    • Prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
    • Gives official status to one religion.
    • Provides to all individuals freedom to profess any religion.
    • Ensures equality of citizens within religious communities.

    Answer: (b) Gives official status to one religion
  • Social divisions based on _________ are peculiar to India.
    Answer: Caste