Weather & Climate of India
Weather: The day to day changes in atmosphere is called weather. Weather includes changes in temperature, sunshine and rainfall. A day can be comfortably cold in the morning and may change to unbearably hot afternoon.
Seasons in India
There are four major seasons in India, viz. cold season, hot season, southwest monsoon and retreating monsoon.
Cold Weather Season or Winter Season
The winter season continues from December to February in India. During this season, the sun rays do not fall directly on India. As a result, the temperature remains low in northern India during this period.
Hot Weather Season or Summer Season
The summer season continues from March to May in India. During this season, the sun rays fall more or less directly on India. Due to this, the temperature remains high during this period. Hot and dry winds (called loo) blow during the day in northern India.
Southwest Monsoon Season or Rainy Season
The rainy season falls from June to September. The onset and advancement of monsoon takes place in this season. The monsoon winds blow from the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal towards the Indian Peninsula. These winds carry moisture with them. When the moisture laden wind strikes the mountain barriers, it results in rainfall in India.
The word monsoon has come from the Arabic word ‘mausim’ which means season.
Season of Retreating Monsoon or Autumn
This season falls in October and November. During this season, the monsoon winds move from the mainland to Bay of Bengal and hence it is called the retreating monsoon. During this season, the southern parts of India receive rainfall. Rainfall happens especially in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during this season.
Importance of Monsoon
The monsoon has high importance for India. Agriculture in India is dependent on monsoon. A good monsoon means good harvest. A bad monsoon results in poor harvest. Farmers become very happy when there is good monsoon.
Overall pattern of weather at a place is called climate. For this, weather pattern of at least 20 years is taken into consideration. The climate of India is called monsoon climate. This is hot and humid in most parts of the country.
Factors which affect the climate of a place are; location, altitude, distance from the sea and relief. Since India is a large country, there is wide variation in climate from one place to another. For example; Rajasthan is generally hot and dry, while Kashmir is very cold. There is wide variation in temperature in the northern plains. On the other hand, the climate of Mumbai and Kolkata is moderate throughout the year. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives highest rainfall in the world, while Jaisalmer in Rajasthan receives negligible rainfall.