Class 6 Geography

Natural Vegetation & Wildlife in India

Plants which grow on their own without human intervention are called natural vegetation. Natural vegetation depends on various climatic conditions and especially on rainfall.

Types of Forest

There are five types of natural vegetation in India, and they are Tropical evergreen forest, Tropical deciduous forest, Thorny bushes, Mountain vegetation and Mangrove forests

Tropical Rain Forest

Types of Forests on Map of India

Tropical rainforest is found in those areas which receive heavy rainfall. The tropical rainforest is so dense that sunlight does not reach the ground. The trees of the tropical rainforest shed their leaves at different times of the year. Due to this, the forest always appears green. Hence, such a forest is called evergreen forest.

Important Trees: Mahogany, ebony and rosewood.

Tropical Rainforest in India: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states and a narrow strip of the western slope of the Western Ghats.

Tropical Deciduous Forest

These are also called monsoon forests. The trees of deciduous forest shed their leaves at a particular time of the year. Hence, such a forest is called deciduous forest.

Important Trees: Sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham.

Tropical Deciduous Forest in India: Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and parts of Maharashtra.

Thorny Bushes

This type of vegetation is found in dry areas. The leaves are in the form of spines. This helps the plant to reduce loss of water.

Important Trees: Cactus, khair, babool and keekar

Thorny Bushes in India: Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and Gujarat

Mountain Vegetation

Different types of species are found in the mountains at different altitudes. At the height between 1500 meter and 2500 meter, most of the trees are conical in shape. Due to this, they are called coniferous trees.

Important Trees: Chir, pine and deodar.

Mangrove Forest

Mangrove plants can survive in saline water. They are mainly found in the Sunderbans in West Bengal and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Sundari is a well known tree in the mangrove forest of Sunderban.

Importance of Forest

Loss of Natural Vegetation: Humans have destroyed a large tract of forest. We are recklessly cutting trees for various purposes. Forests are cleared for making way for agriculture and for making townships and factories. This is creating environmental problems for us. Van Mahotsav is being organized to educate people about the importance of forests.



Due to large scale cutting of forests, natural habitat of many wild animals has become less. Many animals are in danger of becoming extinct. Many animals have already become extinct.

Extinct Species: A species which no longer exists is called and extinct species.

Endangered Species: A species which is in danger of becoming extinct is called endangered species.