NCERT Solution

Branding: This term actually came from cattle grazing. In America, cattle of different owners often got mixed up while grazing together in ranches. To solve this problem, the owners began to mark their cattle with a particular sign. This was done by stamping the animal with a red hot iron stamp and the process was called branding.

Quesiton 1: What do you understand by the word brand? List two reasons why building brands is central to advertising?

Answer: A special identification or name that is associated with a product is called a brand. Advertising creates this special identification. Brand building is central to advertising because it helps in differentiating the product from that of the competitor. It also convinces the consumer to give preference to the concerned brand.

Question 2: Choose two of your favourite print advertisements. Now, look at each of these and answer the following questions:

(a) What visuals and text is being used in these advertisements to attract my attention?

Answer: This advertisement uses a picture of a child and his mother. The child is at his study table, probably preparing for an examination. A glass; full of a nutritional supplement is on the table. The mother is looking contented.

(b) What values are being promoted in these advertisements?

Answer: A child should be extra intelligent and should always be at the top of his class.

(c) Who is this advertisement speaking to and who is it leaving out?

Answer: This advertisement is speaking to all those people who have aspiration to excel in life. It is leaving out the people who are not good at academics. It is focusing on study and ignoring extracurricular activities.

(d) If you could not afford the brand that is being advertised how would you feel?

Answer: I do not use this brand and my parents do not think that nutritional supplements are required at all. They believe in providing balanced diet to me. They also encourage me to pursue my hobbies and never pressurize me to score 100% in all subjects.

Question 3: Can you explain two ways in which you think advertising affects issues of equality in a democracy?

Answer: The two ways in which advertising affects the concept of equality are as under:

  • Since advertisements use various emotions like caring for the family; for promoting their products, those who cannot afford the branded products feel that they are not able to offer the quality product and the care that the brand products appear to offer. For example; if the advertisement of a branded daal uses the tagline and concept of ‘give the best to your family’; those who cannot afford this brand will feel incapable of giving the best to their family.
  • Overlooking important issues: Since advertising focuses on the lives of the rich and the well known it makes us forget the issues of poverty, discrimination and dignity – the issues that are the essence of the functioning of equality in a democracy.

Question 4: Making an advertisement requires a lot of creativity. Let us imagine a situation in which a manufacturer has just made a new watch. She says that she wants to sell this watch to school children. She comes to your class and asks you all to create a brand name as well as an advertisement for the watch. Divide the class into small groups and each group create an advertisement for this watch. Share it with the class.

Answer: Suggested Brand Name: Zoomba

  • This word has no specific meaning. This is small name; carrying notions of excitement and can appeal to the children hooked to the internet and video games.
  • The design of the watch should convey adventure. It can be oversized and should look modern.
  • The catch line: It's my time. It's Zoomba time.


  • Social advertisements: These are the advertisements made by the State or private agencies. They have a larger message for the society. For example; advertisement regarding building of toilets in each home to ensure health and sanitation of the people is a social advertisement. Advertisement giving simple steps for preventing dengue is also a social advertisement.
  • Product: This refers to an item (tangible) or a service (intangible) that has been made for being sold in the market.
  • Brand: The special identification (created by advertising) or name that is associated with a product is called brand.
  • Brand Value: Advertisers project the special values for their brand so that their brand is given preference over others. These values are called brand value.
  • Consumer: This refers to the person for whom the goods are manufactured and who pays money to purchase and use them.

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