New States Jats
- Rise of Jats
- Kingdom of Bharatpur
- French Revolution
The Jats: The Jats were prosperous agriculturists. The towns like Panipat and Ballabhgarh emerged as popular trading centres in the areas dominated by them. The Jats also consolidated their power during the late 17th and 18th centuries. They acquired control over the following areas, under their leader Churaman:
- The territories situated to the west of Delhi.
- By the 1680s, the region between the two imperial cities of Delhi and Agra.
Kingdom of Bharatpur
The kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state under Suraj Mal. Many of the city's notables took refuge in Bharatpur when Nadir Shah sacked Delhi in 1739. His son Jawahir Shah, who had 30000 troops of his own, managed to hire another 20000 Maratha and 15000 Sikhs to fight the Mughals. The Bharatpur fort was built in a fairly traditional style.
Here, the Jats built an elaborate garden palace combining styles seen at Amber and Agra. Its buildings were modeled on architectural forms which were first associated with royalty under Shah Jahan.
- Chauth: Twenty five percent of the land revenue claimed by the zamindars. In the Deccan this was claimed by the Marathas.
- Sardeshmukhi: Nine to ten percent of the land revenue paid to the head revenue collector in the Deccan.
- Turanis: Nobles of Turkish descent.
The French Revolution (1789 - 1794)
In the Western world, the system of the common people not having any say in the affairs of the government was a practice till the late 18th century. The American and the French revolutions challenged the social and political privilege enjoyed by the aristocrats. These transformed subjects into citizens.
The premise of the French revolution was that no group in the society should enjoy privileges based on birth. They demanded that:
- Social position should depend on merit.
- There should be equal laws and opportunities for all.
- The authority of the government should come from people who must possess the right to participate in its affairs.
In India, the ideas of citizenship, nation-state and democratic rights took root in the late 19th century.