Science Class Ten Class 10 Subject List





Metals and Non-metals

Elements are divided mainly into two groups on the basis of physical and chemical properties – Metal and Non-metal.

Physical Properties of Metals:-

  • Hardness:- Most of the metals are hard, except alkali metals, such as sodium, potassium, lithium, etc. Sodium, potassium, lithium etc. are very soft metals, these can be cut using knife.

  • Strength:- Most of the metals are strong and have high tensile strength. Because of this big structures are made using metals, such as copper and iron.

  • State:- Metals are solid at room temperature except mercury.

  • Lusture:- Metals are lustrous i.e. they are shiny in appearance. This is the cause that metals like gold, silver and platinum are used to make jewellery.

  • Sound:- Metals produce ringing sound, so, metals are called sonorous. Sound of metals is also known as metallic sound. This is the cause that metal wires are used in making musical instruments.

  • Conduction:- Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity. This is the cause that electric wires are made of metals like copper and aluminium.

  • Malleability:- Metals are malleable. This means metals can be beaten into thin sheet. Because of this property iron is used in making big ships.

  • Ductility:- Metals are ductile. This means metals can be drawn into thin wire. Because of this property wires are made of metals.

  • Melting and boiling point:- Metals have generally high melting and boiling points.

  • Density:- Most of the metals have high density.

  • Color:- Most of the metals are grey in color. But gold and copper are exceptions.

Chemical Properties of Metals

Reaction with oxygen:-

Most of the metals form respective metal oxides when react with oxygen.

reaction of metal and oxygen

Examples:

(1) Reaction of potassium with oxygen:- Potassium metal forms potassium oxide when reacts with oxygen.

reaction of potassium and oxygen

(2) Reaction of sodium with oxygen:- Sodium metal forms sodium oxide when reacts with oxygen.

reaction of sodium and oxygen

Lithium, potassium, sodium, etc. are known as alkali metals. Alkali metals react vigorously with oxygen.

(3) Reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen:- Magnesium metal gives magnesium oxide when reacts with oxygen. Magnesium burnt with dazzling light in air and produces lot of heat.

reaction of magnesium and oxygen

(4) Reaction of aluminium metal with oxygen: Aliminium metal does not react with oxygen at room temperature but it gives aluminium oxide when burnt in air.

reaction of aluminium and oxygen

(5) Reaction of zinc metal with oxygen: Zinc does not react with oxygen at room temperature. But it gives zinc oxide when heated strongly in air.

reaction of zinc and oxygen

(6) Reaction of Iron metal with oxygen: Iron does not react with oxygen at room temperature. But when iron is heated strongly in air, it gives iron oxide.

reaction of iron and oxygen

Iron fillings give sprinkle in flame when burnt.

(7) Reaction of copper metal with oxygen: Copper does not react with oxygen at room temperature but when burnt in air, it gives copper oxide.

reaction of copper and oxygen


NEXT
Metals and Non Metals - Metals
Chemical Properties of Metals (Part 2)
Chemical Properties of Metals (Part 3)
Reactivity Series
Physical and Chemical Properties of Non-Metals
Reaction of Metals and Non-Metals
Ionic Bonds
Occurance and Extraction of Metals
Extraction of Metals of low reactivity
Extraction of Metals of high reactivity
NCERT In Text Solution (Part 1)
NCERT In Text Solution (Part 2)
NCERT Exercise Solution (Part 1)
NCERT Exercise Solution (Part 2)
NCERT Exercise Solution (Part 3)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution MCQs(Part 1)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution MCQs(Part 2)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution MCQs(Part 3)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution MCQs(Part 4)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution MCQs(Part 5)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution MCQs(Part 6)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution MCQs(Part 7)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution Short Answer(Part 1)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution Short Answer(Part 2)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution Short Answer(Part 3)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution Short Answer(Part 4)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution Long Answer(Part 1)
NCERT Exemplar Problems & Solution Long Answer(Part 2)






   
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