Science Class Ten Science Class ten Hindi Version Class 10 Subject List





Class ten Science CBSE

Metals and Non-metals

Elements are divided mainly into two groups on the basis of physical and chemical properties – Metal and Non-metal.

Metals: Part - I

Physical Properties of Metals:-

  • Hardness:- Most of the metals are hard, except alkali metals, such as sodium, potassium, lithium, etc. Sodium, potassium, lithium etc. are very soft metals, these can be cut using knife.

  • Strength:- Most of the metals are strong and have high tensile strength. Because of this big structures are made using metals, such as copper and iron.

  • State:- Metals are solid at room temperature except mercury.

  • Lusture:- Metals are lustrous i.e. they are shiny in appearance. This is the cause that metals like gold, silver and platinum are used to make jewellery.

  • Sound:- Metals produce ringing sound, so, metals are called sonorous. Sound of metals is also known as metallic sound. This is the cause that metal wires are used in making musical instruments.

  • Conduction:- Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity. This is the cause that electric wires are made of metals like copper and aluminium.

  • Malleability:- Metals are malleable. This means metals can be beaten into thin sheet. Because of this property iron is used in making big ships.

  • Ductility:- Metals are ductile. This means metals can be drawn into thin wire. Because of this property wires are made of metals.

  • Melting and boiling point:- Metals have generally high melting and boiling points.

  • Density:- Most of the metals have high density.

  • Color:- Most of the metals are grey in color. But gold and copper are exceptions.
Chemical Properties of Metals: Part-I

Reaction with oxygen:-

Most of the metals form respective metal oxides when react with oxygen.

reaction of metal and oxygen

Examples:

(1) Reaction of potassium with oxygen:- Potassium metal forms potassium oxide when reacts with oxygen.

reaction of potassium and oxygen

(2) Reaction of sodium with oxygen:- Sodium metal forms sodium oxide when reacts with oxygen.

reaction of sodium and oxygen

Lithium, potassium, sodium, etc. are known as alkali metals. Alkali metals react vigorously with oxygen.

(3) Reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen:- Magnesium metal gives magnesium oxide when reacts with oxygen. Magnesium burnt with dazzling light in air and produces lot of heat.

reaction of magnesium and oxygen

(4) Reaction of aluminium metal with oxygen: Aliminium metal does not react with oxygen at room temperature but it gives aluminium oxide when burnt in air.

reaction of aluminium and oxygen

(5) Reaction of zinc metal with oxygen: Zinc does not react with oxygen at room temperature. But it gives zinc oxide when heated strongly in air.

reaction of zinc and oxygen

(6) Reaction of Iron metal with oxygen: Iron does not react with oxygen at room temperature. But when iron is heated strongly in air, it gives iron oxide.

reaction of iron and oxygen

Iron fillings give sprinkle in flame when burnt.

(7) Reaction of copper metal with oxygen: Copper does not react with oxygen at room temperature but when burnt in air, it gives copper oxide.

reaction of copper and oxygen
Reaction of metals with water:

Metals form respective metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas when react with water.

reaction of metal and water

All metals do not react with water. Alkali metals react vigorously with water.

Examples:

(1) Reaction of sodium metal with water: Sodium metal forms sodium hydroxide and liberates hydrogen gas along with lot of heat when reacts with water.

reaction of sodium and water

(2) Reaction of potassium metal with water: Potassium metal forms potassium hydroxide and liberates hydrogen gas along with lot of heat when reacts with water.

reaction of potassium and water

(3) Reaction of calcium metal with water: Calcium forms calcium hydroxide along with hydrogen gas and heat when reacts with water.

reaction of calcium and water

(4) Reaction of magnesium metal with water: Magnesium metal reacts with water slowly and forms magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

reaction of magnesium and water

When steam is passed over magnesium metal, magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas are formed.

reaction of magnesium and steam

(5) Reaction of aluminium metal with water: Reaction of aluminium metal with cold water is too slow to come into notice. But when steam is passed over aluminium metal; aluminium oxide and hydrogen gas are produced.

reaction of aluminium and steam

(6) Reaction of zinc metal with water: Zinc metal produces zinc oxide and hydrogen gas when steam is passed over it. Zinc does not react with cold water.

reaction of zinc and steam

(7) Reaction of Iron with water: Reaction of iron with cold water is very slow and come into notice after a long time. Iron forms rust (iron oxide) when reacts with moisture present in atmosphere.

Iron oxide and hydrogen gas are formed by passing of steam over iron metal.

reaction of iron and water

Other metals usually do not react with water or react very slowly.


Metals & Non-metal Part-II          Metals & Non-metal Part III   Metals & Non-metal Part-IV

 




   
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