Class ten Science CBSE
Metals and Non-metals
Elements are divided mainly into two groups on the basis of physical and chemical
properties – Metal and Non-metal.
Metals: Part - I
Physical Properties of Metals:-
- Hardness:- Most of the metals are hard, except alkali metals, such as sodium,
potassium, lithium, etc. Sodium, potassium, lithium etc. are very soft metals,
these can be cut using knife.
- Strength:- Most of the metals are strong and have high tensile strength. Because
of this big structures are made using metals, such as copper and iron.
- State:- Metals are solid at room temperature except mercury.
- Lusture:- Metals are lustrous i.e. they are shiny in appearance. This is the
cause that metals like gold, silver and platinum are used to make jewellery.
- Sound:- Metals produce ringing sound, so, metals are called sonorous. Sound of
metals is also known as metallic sound. This is the cause that metal wires are
used in making musical instruments.
- Conduction:- Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity. This is the cause
that electric wires are made of metals like copper and aluminium.
- Malleability:- Metals are malleable. This means metals can be beaten into thin
sheet. Because of this property iron is used in making big ships.
- Ductility:- Metals are ductile. This means metals can be drawn into thin wire.
Because of this property wires are made of metals.
- Melting and boiling point:- Metals have generally high melting and boiling
- Density:- Most of the metals have high density.
- Color:- Most of the metals are grey in color. But gold and copper are exceptions.
Chemical Properties of Metals: Part-I
Reaction with oxygen:-
Most of the metals form respective metal oxides when react with oxygen.
(1) Reaction of potassium with oxygen:-
Potassium metal forms potassium oxide when reacts with oxygen.
(2) Reaction of sodium with oxygen:- Sodium
metal forms sodium oxide when reacts with oxygen.
Lithium, potassium, sodium, etc. are known as alkali metals. Alkali metals react
vigorously with oxygen.
(3) Reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen:-
Magnesium metal gives magnesium oxide when reacts with oxygen. Magnesium burnt
with dazzling light in air and produces lot of heat.
(4) Reaction of aluminium metal with oxygen:
Aliminium metal does not react with oxygen at room temperature but it gives
aluminium oxide when burnt in air.
(5) Reaction of zinc metal with oxygen: Zinc
does not react with oxygen at room temperature. But it gives zinc oxide when
heated strongly in air.
(6) Reaction of Iron metal with oxygen: Iron
does not react with oxygen at room temperature. But when iron is heated strongly
in air, it gives iron oxide.
Iron fillings give sprinkle in flame when burnt.
(7) Reaction of copper metal with oxygen:
Copper does not react with oxygen at room temperature but when burnt in air, it
gives copper oxide.
Reaction of metals with water:
Metals form respective metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas when react with water.
All metals do not react with water. Alkali metals react vigorously with water.
(1) Reaction of sodium metal with water:
Sodium metal forms sodium hydroxide and liberates hydrogen gas along with lot of
heat when reacts with water.
(2) Reaction of potassium metal with water:
Potassium metal forms potassium hydroxide and liberates hydrogen gas along with
lot of heat when reacts with water.
(3) Reaction of calcium metal with water:
Calcium forms calcium hydroxide along with hydrogen gas and heat when reacts
(4) Reaction of magnesium metal with water:
Magnesium metal reacts with water slowly and forms magnesium hydroxide and
When steam is passed over magnesium metal, magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas are
(5) Reaction of aluminium metal with water:
Reaction of aluminium metal with cold water is too slow to come into notice. But
when steam is passed over aluminium metal; aluminium oxide and hydrogen gas are
(6) Reaction of zinc metal with water: Zinc
metal produces zinc oxide and hydrogen gas when steam is passed over it. Zinc
does not react with cold water.
(7) Reaction of Iron with water: Reaction of
iron with cold water is very slow and come into notice after a long time. Iron
forms rust (iron oxide) when reacts with moisture present in atmosphere.
Iron oxide and hydrogen gas are formed by passing of steam over iron metal.
Other metals usually do not react with water or react very slowly.
Metals & Non-metal Part-II
Metals & Non-metal Part III
Metals & Non-metal Part-IV