Class 9 Geography
During October-November, the sun apparently moves towards the south. During this period, the monsoon trough over the northern plains becomes weaker. The south-west monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually. The monsoon withdraws from the northern plains by the beginning of October.
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- The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. While day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant. Humidity is still present. High temperature and humidity, makes the weather quite uncomfortable during the day. This is commonly known as “October Heat”.
- The temperature begins to fall rapidly in northern India by the second half of October. The low-pressure conditions over northwestern India move to the Bay of Bengal by early November. This shift leads to cyclonic depressions over the Andaman Sea. These cyclones usually cross the eastern coasts of India and cause heavy and widespread rain. These cyclones may also arrive at the Coasts of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh. These cyclones contribute to the bulk of the rainfall of the Coromandel Coast.
DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL
- The western coast and northeastern India receive over 400 cm of rainfall annually.
- The annual rainfall is less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Rainfall is also low in the interior of the Deccan Plateau and easth of the Sahyadris. The area around Leh also gets low rainfall.
- The rest of the country gets moderate rainfall. Snowfall is restricted to the Himalayan region.
MONSOON AS A UNIFYING BOND
Although there are wide variations in weather patterns across India, the monsoon brings some unifying influences on India. The Indian landscape, its flora and fauna, etc. are highly influenced by the monsoon.
The entire agricultural calendar in India is governed by the monsoon. Most of the festivals in India are related to agricultural cycle. These festivals may be known by different names in different parts of the country, but their celebration is decided by the monsoon. It is also said that the river valleys which carry the rainwater also unite as a single river valley unit. Due to these reasons, monsoon is often a great unifying factor in India.
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