Types of Chemical Reaction Class ten science chemistry

Chemical Reactions and Equations

Types of Chemical Reaction

Chemical reactions can be classified in following types:

Combination Reaction: Reactions in which two or more reactants combine to form one product are called COMBINATION REACTION.

A general combination reaction can be represented by the chemical equation given here.

A + B ⇨ AB

Example: When magnesium is burnt in air (oxygen), magnesium oxide is formed. In this reaction, magnesium is combined with oxygen.

Mg + O2 ⇨ 2MgO

Magnesium + Oxygen ⇨ Magnesium oxide

When carbon is burnt in oxygen (air), carbon dioxide is formed. In this reaction, carbon is combined with oxygen.

C + O2 ⇨ CO2

Carbon + Oxygen ⇨ Carbon dioxide

When hydrogen reacts with chlorine, hydrogen chloride is formed.

H2 + Cl2 ⇨ 2HCl

Hydrogen + Chlorine ⇨ Hydrogen chloride

When calcium oxide reacts with water, calcium hydroxide is formed

CaO + H2O ⇨ Ca(OH)2

Calcium oxide + Water ⇨ Calcium hydroxide

When carbon monoxide reacts with oxygen, carbon dioxide is formed.

2CO + O2 ⇨ 2CO2

Carbon monoxide + Oxygen ⇨ Carbon dioxide

Decomposition Reaction: Reactions in which one compound decomposes in two or more compounds or element are known as DECOMPOSITION REACTION. Decomposition reaction is just opposite of combination reaction.

A general decomposition reaction can be represented as follows:

AB ⇨ A + B

Example: When calcium carbonate is heated, it decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide

CaCO3 ⇨ CaO + CO2

Calcium carbonate ⇨ Calcium oxide + Carbon dioxide

When ferric hydroxide is heated, it decomposes into ferric oxide and water

2Fe(OH)3 ⇨ Fe2O3 + 3H2O

Ferric hydroxide ⇨ Ferric oxide + Water

When lead nitrate is heated, it decomposes into lead oxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen.

2Pb(NO3)2 ⇨ 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2

Lead nitrate ⇨ Lead oxide + Nitrogen oxide + Oxygen

In above examples, compound is decomposed because of heating, so, these reactions are called THERMAL DECOMPOSITION REACTION.

Electrolytic Decomposition:

Reactions in which compounds decompose into simpler compounds because of passage of electricity, are known as ELECTROLYTIC DECOMPOSITION. This is also known as ELECTROLYSIS.

Example: When electricity is passed in water, it decomposes into hydrogen and oxygen.

2H2O ⇨ 2H2 + O2

Photolysis or Photo Decomposition Reaction:

Reactions in which a compound decomposes because of sunlight are known as PHOTOLYSIS or PHOTO DECOMPOSITION REACTION.

Example: When silver chloride is put in sunlight, it decomposes into silver metal and chlorine gas.

2AgCl ⇨ 2Ag + Cl2

Similarly, when silver bromide is put under sunlight, it decomposes into silver metal and bromine gas.

2AgBr ⇨ 2Ag + Br2

Photographic paper has coating of silver chloride, which turns into grey when exposed to sunlight. It happens because silver chloride is colourless while silver is a grey metal.

Displacement Reaction

Reactions in which atoms or ions move from one compound to other to form new compound are known as DISPLACEMENT REACTION. Displacement reaction is also known as Substitution Reaction or Single displacement /Replacement Reaction.

A general displacement reaction can be represented using chemical equation as follows:

A + BC ⇨ AC + B

Displacement reaction takes place only when ‘A’ is more reactive than B. If ‘B’ is more reactive than ‘A’, then ‘A’ will not displace ‘C’ from ‘BC’ and reaction will not be taken place.

Example: When zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid, it gives hydrogen gas and zinc chloride.

Zn + 2HCl ⇨ ZnCl2 + H2

When zinc reacts with copper sulphate, it forms zinc sulphate and copper metal.

Zn + CuSO4 ⇨ ZnSO4 + Cu

When silver metal is dipped in copper nitrate, no reaction takes place because silver metal is less reactive than copper.

Ag + Cu(NO3 )2 No reaction takes place

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