Administration: The function of a political state in exercising its government duties is called administration. Administration in rural areas involves many aspects. Some of them are as follows:
- Construction of public facilities; like road, drainage, check dams, drinking water facilities.
- Implementation of welfare schemes; like MNREGA.
- Settlement of disputes
- Maintenance of land records
- Collection of land revenue
Settlement of Disputes
Disputes can arise when two people or two groups of people do not agree on a particular issue. While many disputes can be solved in amicable manner, sometimes a dispute may need intervention of administration machinery.
Role of Police
The police have to ensure enforcement of law. It also has to ensure peace and harmony in the area. Police stations are present for every village. A particular police station usually covers many villages.
Station House Officer (SHO)
A police station is headed by the Station House Officer. In other words, the SHO is the in-charge of the police station. The SHO registers complaints. Complaints are usually registered in the form of an FIR (First Information Report).
After registering the FIR, the SHO sends a constable to investigate the scene of the dispute or crime. The SHO may try to take help of the Gram Panchayat or village elders in finding a solution. The SHO can also go to the court to reach a solution.
Land disputes are the most frequent cause of dispute in rural areas. It often happens that a person forcibly tries to occupy someone else’s land. Some people are socially and economically more powerful in a village than some other people. The powerful person may try to grab the land of a less powerful person. In such a situation, people from the SCs/STs and OBCs are usually at the receiving end. Sometimes, land disputes can also arise among people of the same caste.
Land Record Officer
Hindi Names: Tehsildar (तहसीलदार), Patwari (पटवारी), Kanungo (कानूनगो), Karmchari (कर्मचारी)
The person who is responsible for collecting land revenue from the village is known by different names in different parts of India. Some names are given above. The Patwari is the lowest state functionary in the Revenue Collection System. The Patwari system was first introduced by Sher Shah Suri. This system was further developed by Akbar.
Duties of Patwari
The main duties of patwari are as follows:
- The maintenance of record of the crop grown at every harvest.
- The keeping of the record of rights to a plot up to date.
Since the times when the early kingdoms and empires flourished in India, land revenue has been a major source of revenue for the government. The government charges some tax for the land holding on an annual basis.
At the district level, the Collector heads the Revenue Collection System. The District Magistrate is also called Collector because of his association with the Revenue Collection System.