Class 6 Civics

Urban Livelihood

A city is a much bigger place than a village. The population of a village can only be in thousands, while the population of a city is in hundred thousand. Population of some big cities can be in millions; like population of Delhi or Mumbai.

Occupations in City

A city is defined as a place where the main occupation of people is not agriculture. A city usually depends on villages for farm produce. There can be an endless list of occupations in a city. Very few people in the city know each other but each worker works in a way that it makes the life of others somewhat easier.

While it is difficult to explain each and every occupation in a city, some generalizations can be made. Some of the occupations in a city are as follows:

Government Servants

People who work for the government are called government servants. Some of them work for the Central Government, while some others work for the State Government. There are many levels in the government service. Officers make the top tier of government servants. The officers are assisted by a huge number of clerks. Peons, drivers, cooks, gardeners, etc. make the bottom level of government service.

Benefits of Government Job

The job in the government service is permanent. This means that the worker is assured of retaining his/her job till the time of retirement. The workers get salary on a regular basis. They also get various other benefits, apart from the salary. Some of the benefits are as follows:

  1. Holidays: The government servants get holidays on national holidays and on important festivals. Sundays are the weekly off in most of the offices. Some offices have the provision of five working days, i.e. Saturdays and Sundays are off.
  2. Leaves: A government servant can take leave in case of some urgent personal work. He can also take sick leave in case of falling sick. For specified number of leaves in a given year, the salary is not deducted.
  3. Medical Benefits: A government servant is entitled to medical benefits for him and his family members. Cost of treatment is paid by the government up to some specified amount.
  4. Retirement Benefits: A part of the salary is saved by the government every month. This money is utilized to provide retirement benefits to employees. When a government servant retires, he gets a big amount of money as one-time payment. Additionally, he also gets monthly pension after retirement. The pension is usually enough to maintain a comfortable life during old age.

Jobs in Private Companies

Many people work for privates companies. Some of the private companies are quite big. Jobs in private companies have more or less similar benefits as in government jobs. People who work in good companies get almost all the social security benefits such as provident fund, leave, medical benefits, etc. But employees of private companies do not get pension after retirement.

Permanent Workers Vs Casual Workers

People who work as permanent workers (either for the government or for private companies) usually get good salary and secure job. But casual workers do not get such facilities. A permanent worker is on the payroll of the employer but a casual worker is not on the payroll. A casual worker is hired and fired as per the need.