What is Government?
- What is the need of a government?
- Different Levels of Government
- Law and Government
What is the need of a government?
Government is needed to make decisions and to get things done. The government takes decision on various matters; like how and where to build roads, schools and railway lines, how to improve the public healthcare system, how to improve the supply of drinking water, etc.
- The government needs to take decisions on various social issues. For example: government formulates programmes on helping the poor people. Government takes decision when there is some conflict between two social groups.
- The government is also required to protect the boundaries of the country. It also needs to maintain cordial relations with other countries.
- The government has to ensure that all its citizens get enough to eat. In case of a natural disaster, the government carries out relief operations to help affected people.
- The government also needs to maintain the rules and regulations so that everyone can live in harmony.
Levels of Government
A large country like India cannot be governed by a single government at centre. So, there are different levels of government which are as follows:
Centre Level or National Level
This is the topmost level of government. The Central Government looks after topics of national interest. The Central Government operates from the national capital New Delhi.
The Central Government or Union Government is composed of the President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers. The President of India is the ceremonial head of government. The Prime Minister is the head of the Central Government and holds the true power. The Prime Minister makes a team of ministers which is called the Council of Ministers.
Different states have their own government. The State Government looks after the state subjects.
The state government is composed of the Governor, Chief Minister and Council of Ministers. The Governor is the ceremonial head of state government and is appointed by the President of India. THe Chief Minister holds the real power in the state government.
Certain local problems and needs can only be solved by the local government. There are different types of local government at village and town levels.
At the village level, the government is headed by the Sarpanch. The government at the village level is called the Gram Panchayat. It looks after topics of local interest.
The local government in towns is called municipality. This is called municipal corporation in big cities. The municipality looks after problems and needs of a town.
Organs of Government
There are three organs of government, viz. legislative, executive and judiciary. Legislative makes laws and executive implements the laws and policies of government. The judiciary has to see if everything is in line with basic principles of the Constitution.
There are two types of executive, viz. temporary executive and permanent executive. Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers form the temporary executive. The permanent executive is composed of bureaucracy.
Government officials who are known as civil servants form the bureaucracy. They are assisted by various other staffs. The government officials look after implementation of various programmes.
Laws and the Government
Government can only function by implementing and enforcing certain laws. For example; the government has made laws regarding maintenance of smooth traffic. These laws help all road users to use the road without getting disturbed by other road users.
If someone feels that the law of the land is not being obeyed in a particular situation, he can go to the court with his/her grievances. The court needs to hear the case and announce decisions as per the law of the land. After the decision of the court, the government officials need to ensure that law is properly enforced.