TYPES OF VEGETATION
There are five major types of vegetation in India: Tropical Rainforests, Tropical Deciduous Forests, Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs, Montane Forests and Mangrove Forests.
Tropical Rain Forests
- The tropical rainforests are confined to areas of heavy rainfall. Such areas are in the Western Ghats, upper parts of Assam, Tamil Nadu coast and the island groups of Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar.
- Areas which receive more 200 cm of rainfall and have a short dry season are the best area for tropical rainforest. Almost all kinds of vegetation; like trees, shrubs and creepers; are found in such a forest. The forest has a multilayered structure.
- Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona are some of the commercially important trees of tropical rainforests.
- Elephants, monkey, lemur and deer are the common animals in these forests. Apart from them, a large number of birds, bats, sloth, scorpions and snails are also found in tropical rainforests.
Tropical Deciduous Forests
Tropical deciduous forests are the most widespread forests of India. They are spread in those regions which get rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm. They are also called the monsoon forests. The trees of tropical deciduous rainforests shed their leaves during summer.
These forests can be divided into two types on the basis of availability of water.
- Moist Deciduous Forest: The moist deciduous forests are found in areas which receive rainfall between 200 cm and 100 cm. Such forests are found mainly in the eastern part of India; like northeastern states, along the foothills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa and Chhattisgarh. They are also found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.
- Dry Deciduous Forest: The dry deciduous forests are found in those regions which receive rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm. Such forests are found in the rainier parts of the peninsular plateau and the plains of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Teak, bamboo, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberry are some of the commercially important trees in these forests. Lion, tiger, pig, deer and elephant are the common animals in these forests. Additionally, a large variety of birds, lizards, snakes and tortoises are found in these forests.