Chapter List

# CLASS NINE SCIENCE

- Matter
- Mixture
- Atoms-Molecules
- Structure of Atom
- Forces & Law Of Motion
- Motion
- Gravitation
- Work & Energy
- Sound
- Living Organism
- Cell
- Tissue
- Why Do We Fall Ill?
- NaturalResources

### Class 9 Syllabus

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## CLASS NINE MATHEMATICS

- Number System
- Coordinate Geometry
- Polynomials
- Linear Equations
- Introduction to Euclid
- Lines & Angles
- Congruence in Triangles
- Quadrilaterals

## CLASS NINE HISTORY

- French Revolution
- Socialism in Europe
- Nazism & Rise of Hitler
- Forest Society
- Pastoralists in Modern World
- Peasants & Farmers
- History & Sports
- Clothing: A Social History

## CLASS NINE GEOGRAPHY

## CLASS NINE CIVICS

- Democracy in Contemporary World
- Meaning of Democracy
- Constitutional Design
- Electoral Politics
- Working of Institutions
- Democratic Rights

### CLASS NINE ECONOMICS

### NINE ENGLISH MOMENTS

#### Honeydew

- The Lost Child
- The Adventures of Toto
- Iswaran the Storyteller
- In the Kingdom of Fools
- The Happy Prince
- Weathering the Storm in Ersama
- The Last Leaf
- A House Is Not a Home
- The Accidental Tourist
- The Beggar

#### Nine English Beehive

### 9 हिंदी क्षितिज

## Syllabus for Science

**Matter:** Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.

**Mixture:** Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.

**Atoms and molecules:** Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept : Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.

**Structure of Atom:** Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars.

**Cell:** Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.

**Tissue:** Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).

**Living Organisms:** Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Nonchordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).

**Health and Diseases:** Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.

**Motion:** Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a staight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.

**Force and Laws of Motion:** Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum.

**Gravitation:** Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall. Floatation : Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary Idea of Relative Density.

**Work and Energy:** Work done by a Force, Energy, Power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy.

**Sound:** Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only).

**Natural Resources:** Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, Water and Soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages. Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature: Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen.

**Food Production:** Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.

## Syllabus for History

**The French Revolution:** The Ancient Regime and its crises. The social forces that led to the revolution. The different revolutionary groups and ideas of the time. The legacy.

**Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution:** The crises of Tzarism, The nature of social movements between 1905 and 1917, The First World War and foundation of Soviet state, The legacy.

**Nazism and the Rise of Hitler:** The growth of social democracy, The crises in Germany, The basis of Hitler’s rise to power, The ideology of Nazism, The impact of Nazism.

**Forest Society and Colonialism:** Relationship between forests and livelihoods, Changes in forest societies under colonialism. Case studies: Focus on two forest movements one in colonial India (Bastar) and one in Indonesia.

**Pastoralists in the Modern World:** Pastoralism as a way of life, Different forms of pastoralism, What happens to pastoralism under colonialism and modern states? Case studies: Focus on two pastoral groups, one from Africa and one from India.

**Peasants and Farmers:** Histories of the emergence of different forms of farming and peasant societies, Changes within rural economies in the modern world. Case studies: focus on contrasting forms of rural change and different forms of rural societies (expansion of large-scale wheat and cotton farming in USA, rural economy and the Agricultural Revolution in England, and small peasant production in colonial India)

### Syllabus for Geography

**Physical Features of India:** relief, structure, major physiographic unit.

**Drainage:** Major rivers and tributaries, lakes and seas, role of rivers in the economy, pollution of rivers, measures to control river pollution.

**Climate:** Factors influencing the climate; monsoon- its characteristics, rainfall and temperature distribution; seasons; climate and human life.

**Natural Vegetation and Wild Life:** Vegetation types, distribution as well as altitudinal variation, need for conservation and various measures. Major species, their distribution, need for conservation and various measures.

**Population:** Size, distribution, age sex composition, population change migration as a determinant of population change, literacy, health, occupational structure and national population policy: adolescents as under-served population group with special needs.

### Syllabus for Political Science

**What is Democracy? Why Democracy?:** What are the different ways of defining democracy? Why has democracy become the most prevalent form of government in our times? What are the alternatives to democracy? Is democracy superior to its available alternatives? Must every democracy have the same institutions and values?

**Constitutional Design:** How and why did India become a democracy? How was the Indian constitution framed? What are the salient features of the Constitution? How is democracy being constantly designed and redesigned in India?

**Electoral Politics:** Why and how do we elect representatives? Why do we have a system of competition among political parties? How has the citizens’ participation in electoral politics changed? What are the ways to ensure free and fair elections?

**Working of Institutions:** How is the country governed? What does Parliament do in our democracy? What is the role of the President of India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers? How do these relate to one another?

**Democratic Rights:** Why do we need rights in a constitution? What are the Fundamental Rights enjoyed by the citizen under the Indian constitution? How does the judiciary protect the Fundamental Rights of the citizen? How is the independence of the judiciary ensured?

### Syllabus for Mathematics

**REAL NUMBERS:** Review of representation of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers on the number line. Representation of terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals on the number line through successive magnification. Rational numbers as recurring/ terminating decimals. Operations on real numbers.

**POLYNOMIALS:** Definition of a polynomial in one variable, with examples and counter examples. Coefficients of a polynomial, terms of a polynomial and zero polynomial. Degree of a polynomial. Constant, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials. Monomials, binomials, trinomials. Factors and multiples. Zeros of a polynomial.

**LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES:** Focus on linear equations of the type ax+by+c=0. Prove that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers, plotting them and showing that they lie on a line. Graph of linear equations in two variables. Examples, problems from real life, including problems on Ratio and Proportion and with algebraic and graphical solutions being done simultaneously.

**COORDINATE GEOMETRY:** The Cartesian plane, coordinates of a point, names and terms associated with the coordinate plane, notations, plotting points in the plane.

**INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID’S GEOMETRY:** History - Geometry in India and Euclid’s geometry. Euclid’s method of formalizing observed phenomenon into rigorous Mathematics with definitions, common/ obvious notions, axioms/postulates and theorems. The five postulates of Euclid. Equivalent versions of the fifth postulate.

**LINES AND ANGLES:** Understanding various theorems on lines and angles.

**TRIANGLES:** Congruency of triangles

**QUADRILATERALS:** Theorems related to parallelograms and their practical application.

**AREA:** Theorems related to area of parallelogram.

**CIRCLES:** Through examples, arrive at definition of circle and related concepts-radius, circumference, diameter, chord, arc, secant, sector, segment, subtended angle.

**AREAS OF TRIANGLES:** Area of a triangle using Heron’s formula (without proof) and its application in finding the area of a quadrilateral.

**SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES:** Surface areas and volumes of cubes, cuboids, spheres (including hemispheres) and right circular cylinders/cones.

**STATISTICS:** Introduction to Statistics: Collection of data, presentation of data — tabular form, ungrouped / grouped, bar graphs, histograms (with varying base lengths), frequency polygons. Mean, median and mode of ungrouped data.

**PROBABILITY:** History, Repeated experiments and observed frequency approach to probability. Focus is on empirical probability. (A large amount of time to be devoted to group and to individual activities to motivate the concept; the experiments to be drawn from real - life situations, and from examples used in the chapter on statistics).